A Hurricane still in the process of taking off from Speke
Airport, Liverpool caught this Junkers out cold and shot him down. The plane
crashed on the opposite side of the River Mersey, at Bromborough Docks. In the
first of the two images, Liverpool can be seen to the rear, across the river. I
have had an email (Nov 07) from Colin Shroeder from Greasby, a local expert on
the Wirral and he informs me that this bomber was actually shot down by 3
Hurricanes, from 312 Sqn, a Czech Unit. All in all, the Hurricane was airborne
for only 12 minutes.
TARGET IDENTIFIED & ATTACKED
On Tuesday the 8th
October 1940, a Junkers Ju88 took off from its base at Caen, Carpiquet
in Normandy northern France, loaded with four 250 kg bombs. It was to
attack industrial targets of opportunity connected with aircraft
production in the Merseyside area, and photograph the results. This
included the Rootes Security Factory at Speke airport, which was
producing Blenheim bombers. The route took it from Caen to Southampton,
Bristol then via Droitwich to Merseyside arriving in the target area
around 4:00 pm in the afternoon.
weather forecast for the day had indicated that there would be cloud
covering the route and target area. Ideal conditions for avoiding
contact with British fighters. In fact the Ju88 pilot Oberleutnant
Helmut Brückmann used these clouds to evade fighters in the Bristol
area. He suspected that his flight was being tracked by noise detection
equipment on the ground picking up his engine’s noise. He had expected a
relatively safe approach to his target due to the cloud cover, but was
surprised by clear skies suddenly appearing above the River Mersey. It
appears that the noise detection equipment acted as a sort of
warning system’ alerting the local
defences of the potential arrival of the Ju88.
Les Jones was on lookout duty on the top of
George Henry Lee department store in the centre of Liverpool. He spotted
the lone Ju88 flying up the River Mersey at about 1,200 feet. Squadron
Leader Herbert (Tubby) Mermagen, the Station Commander at Speke was in
the operations room where the incoming raid was being plotted. At Speke
No.312 (Czech) Squadron kept a section of three aircraft at
readiness, with another section of three aircraft at 30 minutes
readiness. He gave the order for three Hawker Hurricanes Mk.I of Yellow
Section to be scrambled and patrol Hoylake. The section consisted of
Yellow 1 Flight Lieutenant Denys Gillam, Yellow 2 Pilot Officer Alois
Vasatko, and Yellow 3 Sergeant Josef Stehlik. They took off at 4:10 pm
No.289 AA Battery of the 93rd
Regiment of the Royal Artillery located at the Ince gun site had been
alerted to the approach of an enemy aircraft and the guns were manned
and loaded ready for action. The Ju88 approached from the direction of
Helsby and flew over the gun site heading northwest. The four guns were
brought to bear on the Ju88.
Because of the possibility of friendly fighters in the area,
the Gun Control Officer (GCO) Captain J. Blundell,
hesitated to give the order to engage the Ju88. But No.1 gun, no doubt
excited by having an enemy aircraft in their sights had opened up with
three shells from their 4.5 gun. As the Hurricanes roared into sight,
the GCO ordered cease-fire.
Yellow section were
climbing after take-off, still with their wheels down, when Sergeant
Stehlik, saw bursts of fire from AA guns.
this, which drew his attention to the
Ju88. On sighting the Hurricanes the Ju88 started to climb sharply
trying to gain cloud cover.
Sergeant Stehlik got
in the first burst with a beam attack on the Ju88. Flight Lieutenant
Gillam and Pilot Officer Vasatko attacked from the rear and soon the
Ju88 was seen to be gliding downwards with its starboard engine on fire.
Heavy and accurate fire was returned from the Ju88, during the whole
action which hit all three Hurricanes.
Lieutenant Gillam's windscreen was smashed, Pilot Officer Vasatko
exhaust manifold was damaged, and Sergeant Stehlik suffered damage to
the petrol tank and the gun pipeline.
Lieutenant Denys Edgar Gillam Combat Report:
ordered to take off I led Yellow section. When at 1,000 feet I noticed
Yellow 3 break off and climb. I then saw a Ju88 above me just about to
enter cloud. I pulled the emergency boost control and climbed up to a
position vertically underneath it. Yellow 3 did a ¼ attack and passed
away to my left. I closed to an astern position 50–80 yards away and
followed it through cloud firing continuously. One engine poured out
smoke and the aircraft commenced to dive. I followed it down to 800 feet
then broke away as both engines were on fire and I had run out of
ammunition. While I was in the astern position after we had broken cloud
Yellow 2 and 3 were doing ¼ attacks. Continuous return fire was
experienced and I was hit on the windscreen and in the wing
Officer Alois Vasatko Combat Report:
I was Yellow 2 and
started close behind Yellow leader, staying about 20 yards behind. On
turning over the river Yellow leader started to climb sharply and
looking round I sighted the E/A
I gave full gas, turned to port and flew about
60 feet below the E/A from quarter but could not fire on account of the
presence of Yellow 3, I turned and climbed and attacked E/A from rear
and above (about 2 seconds at 100 yards). Immediately afterwards, I saw
Yellow 1 attack E/A from below, I broke away slightly to right and saw
E/A smoking from starboard engine and gliding downward.
I followed at 1,200-1,500 feet distance and approached, but could
not fire at once as Yellow 3 was attacking. I then fired a short
burst and experienced return fire from the upper gunner. E/A then
flew level at a height of 200 feet and I attacked from the stem and
gave a third short burst and saw the E/A fall flat on the ground and
slew round to port. It lies on a meadow at the edge of the
waterborne Balloon Barrage.
Josef Stehlik Combat Report:
Yellow 3 and shortly after taking off I saw AA fire and about 50 yards
above the bursts on E/A flying due west at 1,200 feet, very slowly. On
seeing us the E/A climbed sharply trying to reach cloud cover. I was
about 1,200 feet below and to the rear and immediately gave a long burst
until E/A disappeared into cloud. I continued to climb through cloud for
about 15 seconds, and then saw a silhouette above me 50 yards in front.
I immediately gave a second burst and E/A ceased climbing and glided
down towards the left bank of the Mersey. I gave a third burst, emptying
my guns, and saw his starboard engine on fire. I had to break away to
avoid the Balloon Barrage, and as my guns were empty returned home.
During the fire
fight, which lasted just over 5 minutes the Ju88’s starboard engine was
damaged in a hail of bullets. Leutnant Herbert Schlegel the observer
seated next to the pilot did not have a steel plate at the back of his
seat like the pilot did, and as a consequence receive several bullets
which killed him including a bullet through the head. Oberleutnant
Brückmann tried to jettison his bomb load in order speed up his escape,
but the bomb release mechanism had been damaged in the fire fight and
only two of its four bombs dropped into the River Mersey.
The damage the Ju88 sustained
was so bad that the pilot was unable to keep the aircraft in the air.
The Ju88 was spotted by witnessed on the ground gliding past Bromborough
Church towards Bromborough Docks with smoke billowing from its damaged
The aircraft crashed
landed on reclaimed land at Bromborough Dock with the undercarriage
retracted and two bombs still in their racks, it slid on its belly
across the field and stopped, slewing round to port. The time was 4:15
pm. The port engine had been ripped out of its mountings and one of the
remaining bombs torn from its rack and lay near the aircraft
a dinghy, which the crash had caused to be inflated.
first thing that Oberleutnant Brückmann who
received only minor had to do was to get rid
of the secret documents by eating them. Sonderfuhrer
Horst Lehmann, who was in the ventral gondola under the cockpit acting
as rear gunner, had detached the gondola from the aircraft at a height
of about 3 feet just before the aircraft crash-landed. The gondola or
bola was known by the Germans as the ‘Bodenwanne’
or ‘Bottom Tub’.
Lehmann broke just about every bone in his body
including his legs in addition to major stomach injuries. He was unable
to leave the hospital for many months. His decision to detach the
gondola to save himself is interesting. He could have joined the crew up
in the cockpit, probably without much harm, but there was the fact the
aircraft could have exploded with the bombs still attached. He had only
a few seconds to decide on how to survive the crash, what a dilemma.
Weth the wireless operator/gunner was injured in the face. Weth and
Lehmann were eventually taken under guard by ambulance to Clatterbridge
hospital for treatment.
Harry Gill, a gateman
at Bromborough dock who was about 200 yards from the crashed Ju88 ran
towards the aircraft. As he ran, he saw
(Brückmann & Weth) scramble out of the cockpit and go behind the
aircraft. He found them bent over a third man (Lehmann) lying on the
ground some way behind the aircraft.
demanded their guns, which they surrendered without argument. At that
point two Unilever employees, Mr W.A. Rand from the electrical
department and Rob Thompson assistant manager of Fuel & Steam Department
arrived. Thompson, who had been cycling by when the aircraft crashed,
to the Dock Gatehouse to be kept in custody until the military
authorities arrived. Men from the Local Defence Volunteer (LDV) units of
Unilever and Fawcett Preston arrived to control the growing crowds. Gill
and Rand made a makeshift splint using a shunter’s pole for Lehmann
legs. Eventually Harry Gill was able to look around the Ju88. He found
maps of Merseyside, which clearly detailed buildings and storage tanks
in the Port Sunlight factory and Bromborough dock.
SPOILS OF WAR
The victorious Hurricane pilots landed back at
Speke completing what would be claimed as the fastest shooting down of
an enemy aircraft: about 12 minutes from take-off to touch down. The
pilots got a hearty reception when they landed and were carried shoulder
high by their comrades. A large number of station personnel and local
civilians witnessed the event, including those on a local bus going past
the airport. So great was the interest that the airport gates had to be
closed the following day when crowds of local civilians arrived wanting
to congratulate the pilots. No.312 (Czech) Squadron had only become
operational in late September 1940, and this was their first action.
As soon as he landed, Flight
Lieutenant Gillam got into his car, and drove through the Mersey Tunnel
to the scene of the crash. There he cut a badge off the side of the
aircraft together with the Swastika on the starboard side of the fin for
a souvenir. Returning to Speke it was hung in the hut at the squadron
dispersal. After the war, Flight Lieutenant Gillam presented the panel
with the Swastika to RAF Finingley. Sadly following the closure of
Finingley in 1996, the panel went missing. It has been reported that a
paddle from the dinghy, which had a plaque mounted on it and a painting
entitled ‘The Fastest Victory’ painted by Robert Taylor and signed by
Flight Lieutenant Gillam has been seen for sale on eBay in 2006
George Knut from Willaston, an RAF armourer
based at Hooton Park was dispatched to look after the armament and took
the 9mm machine guns back to Hooton Park.
On examination, the aircraft was found
to have fifty .303 bullet strikes in it. The bombsight was of great
interest to the RAF as it was a new type and the first to fall into
Military personnel inspecting the wreckage
shortly after the Ju88 crashedThe aircraft was removed three days later,
and the Commander of the Merseyside Garrison said that the aircraft was
to be put on public view in connection with
‘War Weapons Week’
in Liverpool the following week. In the meantime it was moved to the
Oval Recreation Ground in nearby Bebington where it was put on display
to the public. More than £70 was collected for the Mayor of Babington’s
On the 18th
October, the Ju88 was paraded through the streets of Liverpool and then
displayed at St George's Plateau alongside a Messerschmitt Bf.109.
Arthur Hardy of Higher
Tranmere was a pupil of Rock Ferry High school. He remembers that half
the boys who stayed for lunch made their way to the Oval and armed with
pen knifes acquired souvenirs of the aircraft. His treasured souvenir
was a piece of thick rubber from the fuel tank along with pieces of
Perspex from the aircrafts windows. On returning to school after lunch
the class room had a distinct rubbery smell, he was not the only boy
with a piece of fuel tank in his pocket.
Mrs Anstead-Browne a
member of the WVS (Women’s Voluntary Service), and organizer of the
Neston Spitfire Fund, secured the use of the Ju88 to help raise money
for their Spitfire Fund.
The Ju88 was
transported on two low loaders to Parkgate where it was placed on view
in a field off Bevyl Road, which adjoined the Parade. A charge of 6d for
an adult and 3d for children was made to view the aircraft. It caused
great interest with the locals and attracted crowds. The bomber remained
there until the 24th
of November when it was taken to RAF Sealand and disposed of.
Arthur Draper, who was eight years old at the
time, remembers the Ju88 arriving on low loaders, the fuselage on one
and the wings on the other. They were placed together so that it looked
as though it had just belly-landed.
“I took a bit of the tail fin, which was lying on the ground. It was
dark green and smelled like rotten cheese. I put it in our shed but my
dad made me throw it away as it had such a terrible smell.”
Quite a number of
those who saw the aircraft thought it had come down at Parkgate. Local
boys were very keen to collect souvenirs, and so the Little Neston
Company of the Home Guard guarded the aircraft at night. Eddie Scott
“The Little Neston Company of the Home Guard was
charged with the responsibility for protecting it from the depredations
of souvenir-hunters. Half-dozen of us detailed for the task made our way
to the rendezvous, an empty house behind what is now the Parkgate Hotel
and mounted a patrolling guard in pairs for the standard two hours on
and four off. I remember the four off particularly for the hardness of
the bare floor and the inadequacy of the single blanket, and the two on
for the inky blackness of the night”.
Maurice Jones went to see the aircraft: “There
were plenty of people there and it poured with rain. It was a very
miserable day. Corrugated sheets had been put on the ground round the
plane, as it was so wet. A wing had come off the plane but was laid out,
as it should have been. There was a long line of people waiting to go
in, and you went in through the door the crew had used. It was the first
German object of war I had ever seen. I went in and sat in the pilot’s
seat and I can remember a lady saying they needed terribly long legs to
reach the pedals”.
ONE YEARS LATER
In 1990, the late
Doug Darroch, local aviation
historian, and founder of the Warplane Wreck Museum at Fort Perch, New
Brighton succeeded in tracing the pilot, Helmut Brückmann to his home in
was hoping to get Brückmann to return to the scene of the incident on
anniversary. Unfortunately Brückmann was involved with the celebration
of the reunification of Germany and was therefore unable to.
However on Friday 1st
November 1991, following arrangements made by BBC Radio Merseyside
presenter Monty Lister and
Darroch, Helmut Brückmann took off from the playing fields of Wirral
Grammar School in the Duke of Westminster’s Jet Ranger helicopter
(G-BAKS) and landed at the crash site just over 51 years since he had
crash-landed there. The Mayor and Mayoress of Wirral (Councillor and Mrs
Gordon Paterson), eyewitnesses to the original action the press along
with John Petric from Lubrizol who now owned the land on which the Ju88
crashed were there to greet him and his two sons who had accompanied
him. This was followed by a reception at Bebington Civic Centre at which
Brückmann was presented with among other things, a painting of the
dramatic events by renowned local aviation artist Malcolm Kinnear, and a
mounted piece of the Ju88 from Doug Darroch’s collection at Perch Rock.
BBC television broadcast an item on the event in
their Look North program that evening, and Monty Lister did an interview
with Brückmann for Radio Merseyside.
Brückmann had hoped to meet Denys Gillam but
Gillam had unfortunately died of a heart attack only a few weeks
earlier. Later Brückmann visited the Military Cemetery at Cannock Chase
where Herbert Schegel had been reinterred. Following this there was a
trip to Ambleside in the Lake District where he had been held as a
prisoner of war before being sent to Canada for the duration of the
REPORTS & WITNESS STATMENTS
intelligence officer, Pilot Officer Phillips reports from the three
‘Yellow section had just received the order to
patrol Hoylake and were still near the aerodrome at a height of 1,000
feet, when a Ju88 was sighted by anti-aircraft positions up river, the
bursts attracting the attention of yellow 3 which sighted the Ju88
flying slowly westwards at 1,200 feet. The Ju88 then in turn sighted our
formation and climbed sharply trying to gain cloud cover. Shortly before
entering, the Ju88 received a burst from Yellow 3 which was followed by
continual attacks from Yellow 1 (continuous astern attacks) Yellow 2 and
3 which weaved in and out attacking from below and above principally
from the rear on account of bad visibility. The Ju88 received bursts
from Yellow 1 and 3 while still climbing through cloud and started
gliding downwards. Yellow 2 and 3 doing quarter attacks.’
‘By this time both of the Ju88's engines were on
fire and it was seen by Yellow 2 and a large number of ground observers
to fall flat down on a meadow on the left bank of the Mersey. During
combat heavy and accurate return fire was experienced from the Ju88 up
to the last moment before the crash. Slight damage was sustained by all
our aircraft a bullet hitting the windscreen of Yellow 1 another the
exhaust manifolds of Yellow 2 while Yellow 3 sustained damage to the
petrol tank and the gun pipe line
in his individual report he returned thinking all his ammunition had
gone). Cine guns were not carried. Anti-Aircraft fire was ceased
immediately our fighters came into action’
Gillam memoirs extract:
‘We were scrambled
October in poor visibility. With our wheels still down we spotted this
Ju88 being engaged by AA fire. My two wingmen began to chase it as I
pulled up into a climbing turn. As my two Czechs engaged him I rolled or
rather slid off the top of the climb right under it, the Ju88 was only
at 1,000 feet. When I had enough power I pulled up and got a very close
shot and it went down and crash landed with both engines on fire on the
other side of the Mersey, about half a mile or so from the airfield. I
continued round, lowered my wheels and put back down on the runway. It
must have been one of the fastest Fighter Command kills on record. I had
a bullet hit my windscreen; in fact the German gunner scored hits on all
car, I drove through the Mersey Tunnel to the scene of the crash just as
the crew was being rounded up. The pilot was dead but the others had
survived although the gunner and wireless operator had been injured. I
cut the German badge off the side of the aeroplane together with one of
the swastikas for souvenirs, and then returned to Speke’.
Gill gateman at Bromborough Dock:
raid siren had sounded but in those days nobody paid much attention to
them. I was on duty at the South Gatehouse at Bromborough dock, when a
twin-engined aeroplane plunged out of the clouded sky and crashed about
200 yards away on land reclaimed from the River Mersey. I ran towards it
and half way there I looked up and saw a swastika on the tail fin. Two
men were scrambled out of the cockpit and ran behind the damaged wing.
The two Germans who were tall and well-built were bending over a third
airman lying at their feet. I sized them by the epaulettes of their
uniforms and demanded their guns, which they surrendered without
Mr Rand and Thompson then
appeared at my side; Mr Thompson took charge of one of the Germans and
escorted him to the Dock Gatehouse to be kept in custody until the
military authorities arrived.
the crew was found to be dead at the controls. Alongside the Ju88 was a
fully inflated dinghy, and two unexploded bombs, which had fallen from
the aircraft as it bounced along the ground, were lying near the smoking
stage of the war, a military unit was stationed near the dock and they
mounted a guard over the aircraft until it was removed by the RAF. The
Air force were very concerned with the bombsight as it was a new type
and was the first to fall in our hands, they carefully dismantled it and
brought it to the Gatehouse where my colleagues and I kept it under
guard until it was taken away. That evening we were visited by the three
pilots who shot the Ju88 down, having been the first to approach the
Ju88, it seemed a fitting conclusion to an exciting day when I shook
hands with the victors’
Frank ‘Doc’ Holmes:
‘On the 8th
October 1940 I was standing my doorstep at 30 Ashfield Road when the
sirens sounded. In the air above us was a German Ju88 with three of our
fighters chasing it and it was firing back at them. The fighters were
Hurricanes. The Ju88 veered and nearly hit Bromborough church steeple,
but the fighters got the better of it and shot it down near Bromborough
dock. I had a good idea where it crashed, so I picked up my eldest boy
Barry aged 6 years, put him on the crossbar of my bicycle, and made my
way to where the Ju88 had come down.
arrived the crew had been removed from the plane. The pilot, only a very
young man was killed and the co-pilot was wounded. The machine gunner
was not to badly hurt. They were all taken to Clatterbridge Hospital. It
was a sad sight to see, but that is war.
arrived on the scene about 15 minutes after the Ju88 was shot down he
had come all the way from Speke Airport where he had left his Hurricane.
He was also a very young man. He cut the German badge off the side of
the Ju88, also one of the Swastikas, got back in his car and left for
Speke and home. Of course the Army were called in to guard the Ju88 and
surround it with ropes and posts.
a bunch of keys lying on the ground near the plane, which I picked up
and gave to one of the soldiers on guard and while doing so had a quick
look inside, I was sorry I did because it was not a pretty site at all.
I did notice that in the glove compartment of the Ju88 there was a bar
of Cadbury’s Chocolate and a pack of Churchman’s cigarettes which must
have come from the Dunkirk campaign’.
Wright from Eastham:
‘It was an amazing experience. I was on my way
home from school to where I lived in the ICI houses at Pool Woods, just
behind the trees. I saw the aircraft flashing past the houses at almost
rooftop level and I thought it was going to crash on them, you could
hear the rat-a-tat from the three Hurricanes guns. The Hurricanes forced
the German bomber down in Bromborough Dock.
A handful of us young kids rushed up to the
wrecked plane, way ahead of the security services. There were three
crew, I think, two were out of the plane in a daze, but the third was
dying. He was asking for a cigarette and a factory worker, who'd arrived
by now, gave him one, but one of his mates kicked it away. At the same
time, the Hurricanes were doing victory-rolls overhead. I was gobsmacked
by it all’
Jones from Speke:
Len Jones was 5 years old and lived at 144
Western Avenue in Speke and was playing on the front lawn with some
wooden tanks his dad had made him. He heard the sound of aircraft
engines approaching and on looking up saw the Ju88 that was being
pursued by two Hurricanes. Engrossed he watched as the Ju88 trailing
smoke, passed over the roof of his house and the next thing the lawn
around him erupted into molehills as the cannon shot from the pursuing
aircraft hit the ground. The shots literally bracketed him. Then tiles
from the roof rained down as they too were hit by the cannon fire from
the pursuing planes.
Housley who lived in Magazine Village:
Dennis was one of
three 12 & 13 year old boys who had a half-day off from school and
on the Mersey in a small rowing boat. He remembers that the weather was
overcast with a slight mist in the air and that he was in the Eastham
Channel with Alan Gratrix and Ronnie Hill. They heard explosions from
the direction of Speke, but couldn’t see anything at that time, so
thought they had better go home. Just then Frank Rogers the Gunpowder
Magazines Foreman started waving frantically from the beach at the end
of Magazine Village. As the noise grew louder, the boys beached their
boat. Frank urged them towards the small cliff on the beach and told
them to keep flat against the cliff. He said,
“It’s a dogfight”,
and there was a Ju88 being fired on by Hurricanes. Pieces were flying
off the German aircraft and were dropping into the mud on the shore, and
smoke was pouring out of the engines.
The aircraft had gone over the dock wall, and
disappeared within seconds. Dennis said,
“She’s down on the dock”
Frank looked concerned, and replied,
“I’ll get my gun”,
and went off to get it. The Ju88 had just scraped over the dock wall by
about 6 feet. Running towards the aircraft,
watched as one of the Hurricanes did a
Roll’ over the scene.
After a short time a Local Defence Volunteer
(LDV) arrived on the scene and tried to keep the crowd back with a gun.
He was told in no uncertain terms to
“point the gun at the bloody Jerry’s”.
Dennis liberated the wingtip and made
off with it included the landing light, the bulb of which had marked on
it OSRAM. Made in England.
His father later managed to speak to a member of the RAF team,
that it was okay for Dennis to keep
it. Dennis’s friend Ronnie made off with a forage cap from one of the
crew. The wingtip was given away in various pieces over the following
years. At Woodslee School the next day Dennis
and his two friends had to stand up in
front of the school and re-tell what they saw.
In 1991, during Helmut Brückmann visit,
Dennis went along to meet him and appeared on BBC TV’s
piece on the incident.
Birkenhead News 12th
The Birkenhead News reported the incident on
of October with just a few lines.
In the 12th
October issue, they reported the incident more fully with a picture of
the Ju88 and the headline ‘One
Less to Come Again!’ This time the
paper printed what it claimed to be comments from a
‘Captured Nazi airman about nineteen years
old’. How the reporter obtained the
comments is a mystery, one can only assume that the Nazi was Brückmann
although he was 26 years old. The paper reported that ‘the
Nazi spoke excellent English, which he said he learnt at school and that
this had been his fifth visit to the area’.
The newspaper went on to say that the pilot
had commented on how in spite of Dr. Goebbels efforts, the Germans were
beginning to doubt the number of British air losses. He was convinced
that Germany was invincible for he had been told that London had been
razed to the ground and it would only be a short time before England was
beaten. What he could not understand was why people here seemed so
content and why, although there had just been an air raid they were
going cheerfully about normal tasks. Regarding starvation in Germany, he
there were good stocks of wheat and tomatoes but the rationing of other
articles particularly meat and butter is very stringent”.
He went on to comment that
“German airman, were repeatedly told that if they came down over England
they would not be taken prisoner”. He
said with a cheerful grin “But we have
no complaint to make about your hospitality so far”.
paper went onto comment about the fliers flying boots with leather soles
but the uppers of canvas lined with wool.
HAPPENED TO THE GERMAN PRISONERS
The German crew were moved to Cockfosters in
London for a week’s interrogation. Following interrogation they were
then transported to Grizdale Hall in the Lake District for 3 months
before being moved to Glasgow to board the
Duchess of York to sail to Halifax,
Canada. During the voyage they
were always mindful of the possibility of German submarine attack.
Whilst on board the
of York, Oberleutnant Brückmann met
Franz von Werra, the only German to escape from British custardy and
return to Germany during the war. They had a bet who would be the first
to escape and get back to Germany. Brückmann was able to escape in
Halifax while leaving the ship but was recaptured a few days later by
the Canadian police. Werra did however escape from a window of the train
taking them from Halifax to the prisoner of war camp in the Canadian
interior. He made his way through Canada in wintertime and deep freezing
temperatures, and entered the United States. From there he made his way
to Mexico where he was able to return to Germany. His adventure resulted
in a book and the 1957 film
one that got away’ in which Hardy
Kruger played Werra. The crew were separated with Brückmann going to a
POW camp for officers and Helmut Weth heading for the cold at Angler,
Lake Superior, but a more comfortable time was had later at Lethbridge
in Alberta. Brückmann and Weth never met again.
Helmut Weth POW identity photograph in CanadaHelmut
Weth told his son Reinhard
forgetting the circumstances of being a POW they had a great time there
with lots of food. He said that the POW’s in Lethbridge got so much
butter that they were unable to eat it all; however the Nazi leaders of
the camp ordered the butter burned in lamps instead of giving it back to
the Canadians. The prisoners were allowed to govern the camp more or
less by themselves, they even had pets organized concerts and theatre
performances and as a privilege were allowed to work outside the camp,
helping the local farmers. He said only ‘nice guys’ got permission to
work there, and the farmer’s wife always gave the POW’s a good lunch,
them almost like a member of her family. Helmut learned to speak English
in the camp, and classes were organized that would lead to a higher
THE GERMAN AIRCRAFT
The Ju88 type had made its
maiden flight in 1936. Designed as a high-speed bomber, it also served
as a long-range reconnaissance aircraft, and some were equipped for
close air support with one 75mm cannon and two 37mm cannons. It was also
used as a night-fighter, with on board radar. At the end of the war,
some Ju88 were even converted into radio-controlled flying bombs.
Eventually 14,780 Ju88 were produced.
The Bromborough Junkers was a Ju88A-1 model built by Norddeutsche
Dornier Werke under license from Junkers and was accepted in May
1940. Its Werke Nummer (Work Number) was 4068. The
engines were built by different manufacturers.
Junkers had built the port engine and
Mitteldeutsche Motoren Werke of Leipzig built the starboard engine.
The aircraft carried
the code ‘M7+DK’
were the ‘M7’
indicated that it was part of Kampfgruppe (Bomber Group) KGr806. The
indicated the Staffel (squadron) within the group, in this case No.2
Staffel, and the ‘D’
indicated the individual aircraft within the Staffel. There was a crest
painted on the nose, which depicted a German eagle in flight carrying an
Iron Cross with a small Swastika superimposed on red, white and blue
concentric circles, the inner ring was partly green and partly white,
this was probably the crews own badge. Part of this badge can be seen at
Doug Darroch’s Warplane Wreck Investigation Group Museum in Fort Perch
Rock, New Brighton.
Pilot, Observer (second pilot), in two
front facing seats. Radio operator/gunner in a rearward facing seat.
Ventral rear gunner in prone rearward facing gondola
Liquid cooled, 12-cylinder
inverted-Vee, Junkers Jumo 211B-1 (or G-1) of 1,210 h.p each.
280 mph with normal operational load
Empty 16,975 lbs.
Loaded 22,840 lbs.
60 ft. 3¼ in
47 ft. 2½ in
17 ft. 5¾ in
Armament Three 7.92mm
machine guns, 1 firing forward, 1 upper rear, and 1 rear ventral
THE GERMAN SQUADRON & CREW
(Bomber Group) KGr806
KGr806 was part of Generalfeldmarschall Hugo
Sperrle’s Luftflotte (Air fleet) 3, with its aircraft based in Northern
France. KGr806 was formed in September 1939, originally as a coastal
bomber reconnaissance unit, which was absorbed into the Luftflotte 3 as
an orthodox bomber group, retaining its nucleus of naval officers based
at Nantes. The unit the aircraft came from was 2/KGr806 which was the 2nd
Staffel (squadron) of KGr806 on detachment at Caen. Originally equipped
with Heinkel He111, it was re-equipped with Ju88A-1 before and during
the Battle of Britain. KGr806 later saw operational service on the
Eastern Front and the Mediterranean.
Oberleutnant Helmut Brückmann
(RAF equivalent Flying Officer) Helmut
(pilot) was born Hamburg in 1914. He
joined the German Navy after graduation from school
in 1934 with the aim to study medicine
and become a medical doctor. This promise was granted by the government
to the best graduates but was later revoked. They needed more pilots and
so he was forced to change his goal,
commencing flying training in 1936. He was promoted to Oberleutnant in
1939 and was made Commanding Officer of a coastal reconnaissance
squadron, and subsequently Director of a pilot training school. Early in
WWII he became deputy Squadron Leader in a bomber wing, regularly flying
He111 and Ju88 aircraft. The operation on 8th
October was his 36th
operational missions and his 5th
Following his incarceration in Canada Helmut
Brückmann was repatriated in May of 1944 in what was the second
repatriation by the International Red Cross of an exchange of an equal
number of prisoners on each side on the basis of illness. He was
suffering from a severe form of gastritis that was feared to be cancer,
which fortunately it was not. The spectrum of diagnostic facilities in
those times being by far less sophisticated compared to today. He was
transported to New York where he boarded the
Gripsholm which was on charter to
the US Government and had been given safe conduct to leave New York on 2nd
May for Algiers where it arrived on 14th
May and collect a further 404 German prisoners before heading for
Barcelona. Arriving at Barcelona on the 16th
May she berthed at a quay 150 yards from the ex-Italian hospital ship
Gradisca which had brought the
allied prisoners who were to be exchanged. The prisoners were exchange
and Brückmann boarded the
and headed for Marseilles and Germany. Repatriation strictly ruled out
any combatant job for the remaining months of the war. He joined the
Luftwaffe General Staff, and was promoted to the rank of Major and did
desk work in Berlin and Potsdam.
It was now he met his future wife Margrit. They
met in the air raid shelter of the Luftwaffe General Staff in the midst
of an allied air raid on Berlin. Margrit had been commanded to work for
the Luftwaffe General Staff that was quite common for young women in
those days. They had to interrupt their own career.
They married in April of 1945, shortly before
the end of the war. Helmut had been relocated from Berlin to Bavaria and
Margrit was able to follow him shortly afterwards. This turned out to be
a quite fortunate development for them as Bavaria was to be part of the
American sector when Germany was divided into four parts. Not long after
their first son arrived and Helmut had to find work to keep his young
family. They eventually had two sons who were able to take up the
medical profession he had originally wanted to do.
When the University of Munich took up its work
again in the destroyed city he was one of the first students taking up
studies of languages, studying and working at the same time. Eventually
he became the director of a Munich language school and in 1952 founded
and was director of the
a worldwide institution for foreigners to study the German language
which is still operating today.
In 1959 he re-joined the General Staff of the
Luftwaffe of the newly founded Bundeswehr (founded in 1956 to be part of
NATO). They were in need of experienced military professionals and had
asked him to join. This in combination with his knowledge of the English
language and his international experience gained in his former work as
head of the
he was what they wanted.
a Lt. Colonel in the Ministry of Defence at Bonn. After a period as
Commander of a cadet-training wing in the Luftwaffe Officers Training
School in Munich, he was promoted to full Colonel in 1961 and
transferred to the German Embassy in Washington D.C. USA as air attaché.
After an additional assignment as the German Military representative
with the NATO committee, he returned to Germany as head of the Military
Studies Group in the German Ministry of Defence. He retired in 1973 and
died in 2001 at Laufen-Leobendorf.
zur See (Royal Navy equivalent Sub-Lieutenant) Herbert Schlegel a Marine
officer the aircrafts
(observer/second pilot) born on 6th
April 1916 was killed by a bullet wound to the head, and was originally
buried at Hooton Village Churchyard. His body was moved in 1962 to the
German military cemetery at Cannock, Staffordshire, block No.3, grave
Unteroffizier Helmut Weth
Unteroffizier (RAF equivalent Corporal) Helmut
Weth was the 25 year-old Bordfunker (wireless
operator/gunner). He was born during the First World War on 3rd
March 1915, as the second of three children in Schweinfurt, Northern
Bavaria. His Mother had to raise her children by herself when her
husband died in 1924. Helmuth grew up in a protestant community, being
an avowed Christian and a member of the local YMCA which enjoyed the
‘Wanderlust’ by arranging hiking and bicycle trips for its members.
After graduating from secondary school he became
an apprentice type setter. However, when he finished his apprenticeship
in 1933, wide spread unemployment due to the bad economic situation in
Germany made it impossible for him to find a suitable job. This was the
reason why he joined Germany’s then newly developing armed forces, and
became a sailor in the German navy. He was stationed on various Baltic
harbours where he trained as a radio operator.
During the Spanish Civil War from 1936 he served
on the torpedo boat ‘Luchs’
during various German navy missions on the side of the Spanish rebel
national forces of Franco. After returning home, he was asked to join
the newly formed ‘Seefliegerverbände’ or Marine Air Forces training as a
radio operator and navigator in 2-seat Heinkel He60 biplane.
After the defeat of France he was stationed in
Nantes and Caen with the KGr806, where he was a member of Helmut
Brückmann’s crew on various missions in a Ju88-A to England during the
Battle of Britain.
He married his wife Magdalene in Flensburg,
Germany’s most northern city, 3km from the Danish border in May 1940,
just 5 months before he became a POW for the next seven years. He
returned home to Flensburg in 1947, via England, where he finally had to
spend some time as a ‘forced labourer’. Back in Germany he and Magdalene
started a family with their children born in 1948, 1950 and 1953. They
moved back south to his former home in Schweinfurt and later to
Würzburg. Here he was able to find jobs as a type and Linotype setter,
and later as a proof reader. He retired at 65, and died just five years
later after suffering from a brain tumour in 1985 at Würzburg.
Sonderfuehrer Horst Lehmann
Lehmann was 37 years old. In English, Sonderfuehrer translates to
Specialist Leader. They had special linguistic or technical skills, but
lacked the necessary military training. They wore standard military
uniforms, and had officer rank without a commission. This gives them
protection under the Geneva Convention if taken prisoner.
They only had authority within the area covered by their specialist
skills. Lehmann was a ‘Bildberichter’ (Photographic War Correspondent)
from Luftwaffe’s No.2 Propaganda Company, on board to photograph the
outcome of the raid. Lehmann recovered sufficiently from his injuries to
be able to be return to Germany on crouches in the first repatriation of
wounded in October 1943 organized by the International Red Cross.
No.312 (CZECH) SQUADRON & PILOTS
No.312 (Czech) Squadron came into being as the
second Czechoslovak fighter unit. It was formed on 29th
August 1940 at the Czech aircrew depot at RAF Cosford. The home base of
the squadron was RAF Duxford, the same airfield where No.310 (Czech)
Squadron was based. Two days later the first nine used Hawker Hurricanes
Mk.1 were flown into Duxford and on the 4th September arrived a Miles
Master Mk.1. Czech airmen, flying personnel and ground staff, arrived at
RAF Duxford during afternoon of the 5th September. The squadron as part
of No.9 Group Fighter Command was based around experienced pilots, who
had already had combat experience during the Battle of France, and many
of who had more than one victory.
On the 6th September 1940, the pilots began with
theoretical preparation for flying on the Hurricanes and with training
flights on the Master. The training was very slow due to the fact the
unit had just one trainer aircraft. For faster retraining of the pilots,
another Master was loaned from No 310 (Czech) Squadron. After nearly a
month the level of training was very high and on the 26th September the
squadron moved to its new home, the RAF station at Speke airport,
Liverpool. There the unit completed its retraining and in last days of
September obtained further Hurricanes. On the 2nd October 1940, No 312
(Czech) Squadron was declared as operational and its task was to protect
the Liverpool area from enemy raids.
The squadron’s motto was, ‘Non
multi sed multa’ -
'Not many but much'
and the squadron badge was, A stork Volant. The stork in the badge
relates to the French 'Escadrille des Cygelines' with whom the original
pilots of No 312 (Czech) squadron had flown.
Two days after their
first victory in downing the Bromborough Ju88. Sergeant Otto Hanzlicek
aged 29, took off from Speke along with Pilot Officer Dvorak to practice
At 2:15pm, the engine of Hanzlicek Hurricane caught fire and he was
forced to abandon the aircraft near the Oglett. He bailed out, and the
wind took him out over the River Mersey, where he fell into the river
some 300-400 yards from the riverbank, and was drowned. The aircraft
came down in the river off the end of runway 08 at Speke. Hanzlicek body
was found up river, 5 miles to the east at Widnes on the 1st
November. The squadron eventually left Speke for RAF Valley on Anglesey,
on the 3rd
Flight Lieutenant Denys Edgar Gillam (37167)
DSO DFC AFC
Denys Edgar Gillam
was born in Tyneside in 1915 and
at the age of 16 he attended a Public School Aviation Camp at Norwich,
where he managed to obtain his ‘A’ license, Royal Aero Club Certificate
No 12,291 on the 12th
September 1934, it was then decided that Gillam would apply for entry
into the RAF, he made an application and went for an interview and was
subsequently offered a Short Service Commission. Two months after
leaving school he was called up into the RAF and went to Uxbridge for
basic training, following this he was posted to No.6 Flying Training
School (FTS) at Netheravon. Upon completing his flying training he was
posted to No.29 Squadron at Amriya in the Middle East, flying Hawker
Demons for six months during the Abyssinian crisis.
After returning to England, Gillam volunteered
for the Met Flight in January 1937 and was posted to Aldergrove in
Northern Ireland remaining there for 2½ years. It was whilst serving
with this unit that he was awarded the Air Force Cross (AFC) in February
1938 for his work with the Met Flight and also for flying supplies to
the inhabitants of Rathlin Island who had been cut off due to the severe
When war broke out Gillam was posted on 27th
September 1939 as a flight commander with No.616 (South Yorkshire)
Squadron at Doncaster and it was with this squadron that Gillam fought
during the Battle of Britain. At the end of the Battle he was awarded
the Distinguished Flying Cross (DFC) and posted to Duxford to assisting
in the forming of No.312 (Czech) Squadron. At the end of November 1940
Gillam was given command of No.306 (Polish) Squadron, until the 2nd
March 1941 when he was posted to No.9 Group Headquarters at Barton Hall,
Preston. Finally in July 1941 he was given command of No.615 (Surrey)
and awarded a Bar to the DFC in October 1941.
following month Denys was shot down by flak and picked up by an Air Sea
Rescue Launch off Dunkirk. In December 1941 he was awarded the
Distinguished Service Order (DSO) and
was sent to the United States, which had just entered the war. Upon his
return in March 1942 he was given the command of the first Typhoon Wing
based at Duxford and after many months of problems with the new aircraft
the squadron started offensive operations in August 1942 during the
In October 1942
Gillam attended Staff College for three months, then in February 1943 he
was posted to No.12 Group Headquarters and then went on to form the
Special Low attack Instructors School at Milfield. In July 1943 he
formed No.83 Group but was then posted to the Command and General Staff
School at Fort Worth Texas, returning in November 1943 to command No.146
subsequently took command of 20 Sector 2nd
Tactical Air Force (TAF) in April 1944. In August 1944 Denys was awarded
the Bar to his DSO and in October of that year he led an attack on the
German Staff Conference at Dordrecht, which killed many of the senior
staff of the 15th
Army. He was
finally posted to No.84 Group as Group Captain Ops, making his last
operational sortie on the 25th
awarded the second bar to his DSO in January 1945 and left the RAF later
that year as a Group Captain. He
joined No.616 (South Yorkshire) Squadron Royal Auxiliary Air Force as a
Flight Lieutenant when it reformed at RAF Finingley in 1947. He finally
left in 1950 to join the family carpet business
Carpets in Halifax were he became
Chairman. He went on to be Deputy Lord Lieutenant of North Yorkshire
and retired to become a gentleman farmer in his beloved Yorkshire. He
died suddenly of a heart attack in 1991.
Pilot Officer Alois Vasatko (83233)
Alois Vasatko was
born on the 25th
August 1908 in Celakovice. Having been a teacher he started military
service, which he finished in spring 1929, and eventually moved to the
Army Academy. After qualifying as a Lieutenant of Artillery he was
posted to the 54th
Artillery Regiment in Bratislava. In October 1935 he was promoted to the
rank of 1st
Lieutenant and qualified as an Air Observer. Between 1937 & 1938 he
trained as a pilot becoming operational on the 1st
Germans occupied Czechoslovakia,
Vasatko with a group of friends crossed into Poland on the 13th
July 1939. From there he moved to France. When WWII began, ‘Amos’
(nickname of Vasatko) was posted on the 11th
September 1939 to fighter school at Chartres, training on Curtiss Hawk
75A aircraft, and on the 11th
May 1940 joined the famous Grouppe de Chasse I/5. On the 17th
May he had his first successful air battle when he shared the shooting
down of a Bf109 and took part in the shooting down of a Henschel Hs126.
Then he was appointed as a flight commander. On the 12th
June 1940, he took part in the destroying of twelve enemy aircraft three
of which he shot
down alone. During this dogfight in which he
shot down a Heinkel He111, he was slightly wounded and on the 9th
June he crash landings twice. He became the most successful Czechoslovak
fighter pilot in the battle of France. At the end of June he flew
together with his unit to North Africa. His total account of incidents
with Germany aircraft in France was 15 destroyed of which 10 were
shared, 4 probables of which 2 were shared and 1 damaged. On the 5th
August 1940, he arrived at Cardiff on board the ‘David
He moved via the
Czech camp at Cholmodeley Park to the Czech depot at Cosford where he
joined the RAFVR with the rank of Pilot Officer. On the 5th
September he was posted to the newly created No.312 (Czech) Fighter
Squadron as part of the first group of pilots. On the 12th
December 1940 he was made the flight commander of ‘B’ Flight and on the
June 1941 he became its Commanding Officer. No.312 was part of Kenley
Wing, they took part in the first offensive flights over occupied
France, and on the 9th
July, Vasatko probably shot down a Bf109 and damaged another.
Promoted to command
the Exeter Wing by mid-1942,
he helped with the organisation of the Czechoslovak Fighter Wing, which
consisted of No's 310, 312 and 313 Squadron’s. During an escort of
Boston’s over Cherbourg on the 3rd
June he probably shot down an Fw190. Then came the fatal day, of the 23rd
June 1942 when the Czech Wing escorted Boston’s on a raid against an
airfield in Morlaix. During their return near the coast of England,
No.312 was attacked by a group of six Fw190 from above. Vasatko tried to
manoeuvre to a better position for the fight but his Spitfire Mk.VB
collided with an attacking aircraft. Both planes then crashed into sea.
Alois Vasatko had
been awarded many Czechoslovak and Allied orders and medals. The
Czechoslovak Order of the White Lion, the Czechoslovak War Cross 1939,
French Legion d’honneur – Chevalier, French War Cross and the
Distinguished Flying Cross (DFC) which he obtained on the day of his
death. On the 7th
March 1992, the President of Czechoslovak republic ordered Alois Vasatko
to be promoted to the rank of Major General in memoriam.
Sergeant Josef Stehlik
Josef Stehlik was
born on the 23rd
March 1915, in Pikarec
pilot training at the Elementary Pilot School in Prague in 1936. He
served as pilot and instructor with No.3 Air Regiment and was promoted
to Sergeant. After the German occupation of Czechoslovakia, he crossed
into Poland on the 5th
June 1939 and then onto France.
After arriving in France he joined the Foreign
Legion at the end of August 1939. When WWII began he was transferred to
Chartres for retraining. On the 1st
December 1939, he was posted to Groupe de Chasse III/3 and took part in
the air battle of France. During this time Stehlik shot down four enemy
aircraft and shared in the shooting down of four more. As the Germans
advanced he flew to Africa and then sailed from Casablanca to England.
On the 5th
September 1940, as a Sergeant he joined the newly formed No.312 (Czech)
Squadron at Duxford.
After the squadron victory on 8th
October, he claimed a probable Bf109 shot down and another damaged plus
another Ju88 shared. He left operational duty in October 1941, and
became an instructor training pilots at Hullavington and then in Canada.
In April 1943 he returned to No.312 Squadron where he flew many
operations over occupied Europe. In January 1944 he moved to the Soviet
Union together with a group of 20 Czech pilots. After training on Soviet
La-5 fighters, he was posted in September 1944 to Slovakia as commander
of the 1st
Czechoslovak Fighter Regiment. He added to his score one Ju88 and a
share of a Ju87. He destroyed two more aircraft on the ground, five
trucks, a locomotive, and three other vehicles. Following this he was
then involved with the forming of 1st
Czechoslovak Air Division where he was promoted to second in command of
Fighter Regiment. He was awarded the Czechoslovak War Cross 1939,
Czechoslovak Medal for Bravery, and the French War Cross.
In post-war life Captain Stehlik took part in
the creating of the new Czechoslovak Air Force. At first he was the
commander of a retraining course on Bf109G aircraft and at the end of
1945 the commander of a course of instructors for the Army Air Academy.
In 1948 when he was discharged from the army
he was arrested for a reason, which was not too clear, but after a year
as there was no evidence against him, he was acquitted. In 1964 he was
finally rehabilitated and got back his rank and returned to the army. He
eventually retired as a Colonel in the Air Force, and died suddenly on
No.312 SQUADRON AIRCRAFT
Yellow 1 flown by Flight Lieutenant Gillam was
a Hawker Hurricane Mk.I serial number P2575 coded DU-P. During the
engagement on the 8th
October, Gillam fired 2,400 rounds, and his aircrafts windscreen was
damaged by return fire from the Ju88. Later this aircraft was flown by
various training units and was eventually struck off charge on 23rd
Yellow 2 flown by
was a Hawker Hurricane Mk.I serial number L1926 coded DU-J. One of the
oldest Mk Is still in frontline service by the autumn of 1940,
fabric-winged L1926 had originally been issued to No.3 Squadron at
Kenley as long ago as April 1939. Part of the first batch of nine
Hurricanes (all elderly L-prefixed aircraft) delivered to the
newly-formed No.312 Squadron at Duxford on the last day of August 1940.
During the engagement on the 8th
October, Vasatko fired 144 rounds. The aircrafts exhaust manifold was
damaged by return fire from the Ju88. Later this aircraft was
transferred to No.55 Operation Training Unit (OTU) and crashed on
landing at Usworth on 15th
Yellow 3 flown by
Stehlik was a Hawker Hurricane Mk.1 serial number L1807 coded DU-X.
During the engagement on the 8th
October, Stehlik fired 504 rounds and his aircrafts fuel tank was
damaged by return fire from the Ju88. Later this aircraft also went to
No.55 Operation Training Unit (OTU) and crashed on 8th
March 1941 at Usworth.
The details of this incident have been compiled
from the published works of David J. Smith, Nick Wotherspoon, Derrick
Pratt & Mike Grant. From Monty Lister’s Radio Merseyside interview with
Helmut Brückmann. Information supplied by Helmut Brückmann son Ekkehart,
and Helmut Weth son Reinhard along with information available on the
Photographs and graphics are from the
collections of David J. Smith, Zdenek Hurt and Bill Housley
My grateful thanks to all. Colin Schroeder
There were many images in this article sent to me, but I am having major
problems getting them to transfer from a word doc to an image. Maybe one
The entire written contents of this page are copyright
|At 4pm on 8 October 1940 a Junkers approached
from over the Irish Sea and flew up the Mersey, heading for Ellesmere
Port. Three Hurricanes of the Czechoslovak 321 Squadron took off from
Speke and crowds saw them attack an enemy bomber. Flt. Lt. DE Gilham,
Pilot Officer A Vasatko and Sgt. J Stenik were the crews. The battle
lasted eleven minutes. One of the Czech pilots, Sgt. Hanzicek, was
killed when he baled out too low and his fighter crashed into the
Mersey. The Junkers came down in a field in Bromborough with engines on
fire. As it bumped along, two 500 lb. bombs fell out. Smoke was pouring
out of the port engine. Two of the crew pulled themselves out and ran
behind the plane. Gateman Harry Gill was first on the scene (Mr Gill was
later to become Mayor of Bebington). The two Germans were well-built men
and he saw them bending over a third who was lying on the ground.
Without a care, Harry hurried across and seized them by their epaulettes
and demanded their guns. They handed them over. Being in the uniform of
a Port Sunlight Gateman, they may have thought that he was a sort of
Policeman. Two others arrived a Mr Thompson and Mr Reid. Mr Thompson
took charge of the two Luftwaffe men. One was 19 years old and had
already made five raids over Merseyside. They were marched off to the
Gatehouse where they were held in custody until the Military arrived.
The member of the crew that was on the ground had suffered a broken
thigh bone and was in pain. Harry and Mr Reid looked around and found a
shunter's pole and bound his leg to it as a temporary splint. The pilot
of the plane had been killed by machine gun fire and had fallen forward
over the controls. Close at hand was a detailed map of Merseyside with
the storage tanks at Port Sunlight and Bromborough Dock clearly marked
as targets. The crew had inflated a rubber dinghy as the pilot had hoped
to bring his plane down in the river.
|The RAF officials were very interested in the
bombsight on the plane which they had not seen before. This was removed
and was taken to the Gatehouse to be collected later. Another of the
Dorniers was piloted by Herr Gunther and after bombing Gladstone Dock
was hit over New Brighton by the AA guns and the plane crashed in the
River Dee where the crew swam ashore and gave themselves up to a
Policeman. Feldwebel Gunther Unger was pilot of a Junkers 88. He
approached the Mersey at 10,000 feet to attack the shipping. Observer
Feldwebel 'Ast' Meier was operating the Lotfe bombsight. They released
four 550lb. and ten 110lb. bombs as the pilot noticed flames behind the
starboard engine. He knew he would not be able to make home so he
ordered his crew to bale out and Unger headed out to crash in the sea so
that there would be nothing for the British to find. The plane was
flying well and he considered whether he should try to get home in it
but the blaze got worst. He parachuted out of the stricken plane. All
the crew landed safely, save Unger. He was in the water and although it
was shallow, it took him over an hour to wade to the Wallasey sands
where he was confronted by a member of the Home Guard and gave himself
up. Hardy Voght was a Flight Engineer who flew on 45 bombing raids
including Merseyside until he was shot down over Hertfordshire in April
1941 and became a prisoner of war. In 1991, he returned to Wallasey to
see the remains of the engine of his plane that is kept in the Military
Aviation Museum at Point Rock Battery at New Brighton.
In September 2016 I was sent, by email, a copy of the
JU88 Manual. I reproduce it here for your information
JU88 (and possibly the cover for these instructions)
A. GENERAL GUIDELINES
Ju 88 is "one man's airplane" when
speaking about flying it, as one man, the pilot, is able to use
and oversee the engine and flying controls during normal
Only during long-distance flights manual
pump has to be used in transfer pumping of lubricant, and in
special cases manual operation of fuel valves and pump in
transfer pumping of fuel is tasked to two other men (wireless
operator or machine gunner).
Table of performance values for the
plane (see figures 7, 8 and 9) in question can be found in it's
slot in the upper middle part of the instrument panel.
Maximal permissible values for engines
are marked in the indicators and instruments with red line or
self illuminating markings.
Different controls have explanation
2. Flying Characteristics
The airplane is stabile on all axis',
and fully capable of instrument flying.
Rudder forces and rudder effectiveness
are balanced and adequate for all (also single-engined) all
states of flight.
When the airplane is pulled in to
excessive angle of attack (either with landing flaps closed or
fully open), the attitude of the plane will only change
laterally nose down. If the speed is reduced to value V-landing,
the approaching attitude change will manifest itself as
vibration in the elevator.
Rate of descend with landing flaps hilly
Approx. 20 m/sec (Ju 88 A-1, A-5 instead
Rate of descend with landing flaps
Approx. 15 m/sec (Ju 88 A-1, A-5: 10-12
Rudder effectiveness when in excessive
angle of attack, at speed of 180kmh, is adequate. Banking turns
with flaps extended are fully possible.
In turning flight only small deflection
of rudder is required. Amount of banking is determined by the
use of turn and bank instrument.
Trim changes when adjusting landing
flaps and also when retracting and lowering the undercarriage
cause such a small lateral moment in the entire speed range,
that it can be easily compensated with small elevator response.
When adjusting the elevator trim plane
slightly tail heavy.
Difference in the flying attitude on the
other hand when landing flaps are closed and on the other hand
when the landing flaps are hilly opened and elevator is set in
the corresponding position (landing- and cruise positions), is
large. Therefore when gliding special attention has to be paid
on the speed indicator.
Aerobatics are prohibited (see paragraph
"Flight in inclined plane")
3. Hydraulic system
Hydraulic system configuration is such that
when using several devices simultaneously, only one of them
functions at a time.
Using the so called "priority switch" makes
it possible to always give priority to undercarriage operation.
After each operation of hydraulic devices
the operation switch has to be returned to 0- position, i.e.
middle position, not including the dive break switch which only
has the positions "closed" ("Ein") and "open" ("Aus"). In this
case position "closed" ("Ein") equals to zero-position.
4. Loading the plane
Before boarding the plane it is the
responsibility of the pilot to ensure that the loading of the
plane has been done correctly and according to loading
Load-out sheets for the airplane and
different load-out options are located in a case behind the
wireless operator's seat (see also figures 10-23).
ATTENTION: If the regulations are not
followed it will lead in Ju 88 planes contrary to previous plane
types, with great probability to structural breakdown, due to
the existence of alternating loads exceptionally far from the
centre of gravity.
When batteries, wing racks or something
else (for test flights at the factory or during transfer
flights) is removed from the plane, it will become nose heavy
over the permissible value. In such case counter weights must be
placed in the rearmost bomb-bay or inside the fuselage according
to the loading regulations (tied in place). This has to be noted
especially on Ju 88 C-6 airplanes. See also part I C and part
III B 3f.
Crew consists of four men:
1. Pilot of the airplane (Commander of the
plane), on pilots seat.
2. Bombardier (Co-pilot), in "A-position"
3. Wireless operator, in "B-position".
4. Mg-operator, in "C-position"
Crew of the Ju 88 C-6 airplane consists of
1. Pilot of the airplane (Commander of the
plane), on pilots seat.
2. Bombardier (Co-pilot), in "A-position"
3. Wireless operator, in "B-position".
The whole crew is wearing light summer
overalls with summer flying hoods, with microphones for
speaking- (EiV-) apparatus.
Pilot and wireless operator: parachutes for
sitting on. Bombardier and mg-operator: parachutes on back.
6. Flight readiness report
Crew chief must give the pilot of the
airplane a report according to the "Flight readiness table",
that the plane in question, with engines not started, is ready
for flying operations, (see part I "Flight readiness report").
Pilot uses spot-checks to verify that the report is correct. If
there is no trained responsible mechanic present, pilot can
perform the flight readiness checks himself.
B. PREPARATIONS FOR FLIGHT
Crew enters the airplane when engines are
Rearmost part of the gondola is opened
(C-position) with a key, entry using the ladder. When entering
the airplane only using the handles and footholds for the
purpose is allowed.
Attention has to paid that none of the
switches, levers or adjustment handles are either pushed or
caught in by clothing when entering. And thus turned or switched
to unintended positions.
Pilot boards the plane first. Machine gun
operator pulls the ladder in and puts them in collapsed in the
sheet metal storage in the C-position.
The gondola gun mount is forcefully pulled
up with the help of the arrestor rope: the locking lever in the
inside is turned right as far as the red mark.
2. Re-checking of the position of flying
and plane controls
The pilot of the airplane checks the the
automatic fuses in the in the hisebox above the C-position when
A 11 fuse switches (not counting the
switch "external circuit" ("Aussenbord") and also 2 switches "VS
automatic left engine" ("VS Automatik links Antrieb") and "VS
automatic right engine" ("VS Automatik rechts Antrieb") are
switched on and if it will be a high altitude flight the 4
oxygen bottle valves in the left side wall of the gondola are
All other switches can be switched on if
necessary on the fuse box on the pilot's left side or from the
Hydraulic auxiliary switch for emergency
use of undercarriage, undercarriage bay doors, dive breaks and
landing flaps must be in positions 3 and 5.
Pilot fastens his seat belt.
The lever actuating the Bowden-line for
adjusting the back belt is located in front of the seating
The seat is adjusted according the body
size in to the best possible position, that is, to a position
with best visibility and best possible operation of rudder and
all levers (lever in the left lower side of the seat is pressed
outside when adjusting the longitude distance of the seat, and
lever on the right side of the seat is pressed outside when
adjusting the height of the seat.
ATTENTION: When adjusting the seat one must
not accidentally push the bomb jettison lever.)
Side rudder pedals, right and left, are set
to equal height (switch in front of the foot pump is raised). By
rotating the body it must be possible to reach hill rudder
deflection and also it must be possible to brake simultaneously,
also it must, when rudder centered, be possible to reach
adequate steering deflection with the steering yoke.
All control movements must happen
unhindered and rudder deflection must match the pedal movement.
"Fine - coarse" altimeter must be set
according to the starting place to show the the height from the
Accuracy altimeter is set to indicate zero
on the field(QFE).
Trim tab position indicators (on the left
panel) are in the middle marking (will be set to red marks only
When taking off with especially high
take-off weight corrections are made already before start by
adjusting tail-heaviness by with elevator trim tabs. Trim tab
hand cranks have effect in the same direction to which they
Levers oft he undercarriage and landing
flaps are in the 0-position.
Switch of the dive-brakes is in position
"Closed" ("Ein") (equals to 0-position).
If the outside temperature is below 0
degrees Celsius Pitot-pipe heating is switched on.
De-icing equipment operating levers for the
left and right wings and elevator are in the position "Closed"
Lever for air filtering is in position
"Suction through the filter" ("Ansaugluft Gefiltert").
Supercharger operating lever in position
"Automatic" (during instrumental take-off it will be set to that
position only when 3500m is reached.
Primer pump lever is in position "Normal" (
also see paragraph C 5a and 5b).
Throttle lever must be tightened as much
that it is heavy to move, and there is no chance that it could
move by itself.
RPM selector lever must be set to "RPM
increases" ("Drehzahl grosser").
It is inspected that the lid of the
emergency fuel jettison switch in the switch box, as well as the
switch of external fuel tank jettison and switch for rubber
dinghy release are all equipped with lead seals.
Automatic direction steering (low left on
the instrument panel) is in position 1, direction setter on the
control yoke is set to 0.
Emergency bomb release switch must be
sealed. Fall switch is locked.
Engine start is performed as explained in
paragraph 1 C 8.1 Then it must be noted:
a. When temperature is below + 5 Celsius
cold starting method is to be used.
b. Note the regulations for warming engines
up if cold starting method is used.
c. Note the regulations for starting in the
ATTENTION: After starting the engines
dive-break switch is turned on once and then the pull-out button
on the left panel is pressed (not the bomb release switch).
If the take-off is delayed, engines have to
3. Taxiing for take-off
Radiator flaps are fully opened.
ATTENTION: Normal time that it takes from
the position "Closed" ("Zu") to position "Open" ("Auf") and the
other way around is approx. 8 sec. The longest permitted
operating time for the cowl flap engine is 15 sec. Machine gun
operator is sitting on the folding seat facing the direction of
flight. Laying in the gondola is forbidden. Entry hatch has to
be closed during all taxiing (otherwise gondola will be filled
with sand). Taxiing is performed, if at all possible, by using
the engines and the rudder. During taxiing it is inspected that
the wheels can rotate freely and the brakes are not braking
independently. When the take-off weight is greater taxiing is
performed with utmost caution and only at slow speed; constant
turning is to be avoided. Turning on one wheel is prohibited.
Brakes have to be spared: braking has to be
interrupted every now and then (excessive overheat).
When taxiing elevator is kept in the middle
position (not cooled) to reduce the tail reaction. Turn and bank
instrument is inspected. If airplane has been started with the
co Id start method, the temperature of engine oil when taxiing
or longer duration idling must not exceed over 30Y In
exceptional cases it may be allowed to reach 70KC (in winter
time) or +851C (in the summer time - half thinned lubricant). If
temperature exceeds 701C or 851C, the take-off has to be, if
possible, aborted, until the temperature decreases.
ATTENTION: The VS-11 propeller that is
installed on the airplane has a pitch governor, which will keep
the RPM constant.
WARNING: The manifold pressure will rise
very rapidly when throttle is increased.
Tail wheel is self-centering. No locking.
Pitot pipe heating is switched on, if air
is very moist and temperature is below 01C (switch to the left
of the pilot).
Fuel pump selector (FBH) levers are in
position "PI + P2". Valve battery switch A is in position II.
Both feeding pumps "Fuel left" ("Kraftstoff
links") and "Fuel right" ("Kraftstoff rechts") are engaged.
Landing flaps are in the take-off position
(251) (lever in middle position, with the old indicator and
yellow lamps on, with nine-lamp-indicator).
Elevator and rudder must have unrestricted
Automatic direction steering is not
RPM selector switch is in the limiter "RPM
increases" ("Drehzahl grosser").
Enricher switch "Normal". Throttle is
pushed forward until the limitor "Start" ("Start")
1 min power
nmax= 26 00 +20 /.50 RPM
pmax= 1,40 +/. 0,03 ATA
Excessive RPM is evened out by turning the
RPM selector switch to direction "RPM decreases" ("Drehzahl
kleiner"). Such event has to be reported to crew chief
immediately after landing.
The veering out of course has to be
corrected by asymmetric throttling.
The airplane is pushed smoothly and slowly
to level attitude and then hel d there until air speed indicator
is showing the slowest necessary speed for the current loading.
Only after that it is slowly pulled off the
ground. The moment of list-off is noted.
The rolling distance needed for the
take-off, when the effect of cross- wind is not taken into
consideration, is for different take-off weights:
Distance on ground
Overall distance over 20 m obstacle
13.0 ton )airplane
13.75 ton )oberloaded
Take-off during day with overloaded
airplane is only allowed from concrete surfaced airfield, up to
13,75 tones from a prepared airfield or hard, even surfaces
Take-off during night is only allowed with
13 ton weight.
Additionally the numbers for take-off roll
given by Rechlin have to be noted (see appendix in the end of
Va= 175 km/h
when take-off weight is 13 000 kg
Va= 180 km/h
when take-off weight is 13 750 kg
With smaller take-off weights the lift-off
speed is a little smaller.
When sufficient altitude has been reached
(approx. 30-50 m), the throttle is moved from the position
"Start" ("Start") to position "Climb power" ("Steig leistung")
and at the same time propeller pitch lever to the according RPM.
For 30 min. time power can remain (climb
and combat power)
Propeller pitch governor will thus keep the
selected RPM in all states of flight, if they are within the
limits of propeller mechanism.
2. Retracting the undercarriage. (Also
opening and closing the landing gear bay doors.)
Undercarriage may remain lowered only when
indicated air speed is below 265 km/h. Shortly after taking-off
wheel brakes are depressed gently and the undercarriage is
Undercarriage operating lever (instrument
panel is set to position "In" ("Ein").
Both undercarriage halves and the tale
wheel are fully retracted and locked as well as the landing gear
bay door closed, when the signal lamp indicates the retraction
complete, i.e. the upper red signal lamps of the nine-lamp
indicator are lit (in older airplanes the indicator apparatus).
Hydraulic oil system pressure gauge (in the
engine cowling) shows after retraction approx. 85-95 ATA rise of
pressure. The operating lever is turned to middle position (0
position). Pressure gauge will return to 15-22 ATA.
Retraction time (undercarriage and
undercarriage bay doors) is about 15-20 seconds. Early
retraction of the undercarriage immediately after the take-off
will cause altitude gain.
3. Take-off with start rockets (If
During engine warm up ran, from a pilot's
signal, special mechanic will open the pressure air valve of
Special mechanic will give the all clear
sign for taxiing. Before take-off the start rockets which are
turned on. All signal lamps including the red lamps must then
turn on in the start rocket switch box.
Landing flaps, trim tabs and propellers
etc. are adjusted in the take-off without the start rockets.
After about 10 sec. of take-off roll
equaling 100-150 m distance, the bombardier will depress the
button in the start rocket switch box or in the right hand side
instrument panel thus switching on the take-off aids. Then the
lower signal lamp will turn off.
If take-off has to be aborted for one
reason or another it can be done by turning the switch in the
start rocket box or in the right hand side instrument panel to
position "Off' ("Aus"), thus immediately switching off the
Under no circumstance it is allowed to turn
on the start rockets that have been once turned off.
Undercarriage is retracted immediately after take-off. The
airplane must not be pulled too hard because after 30 sec. the
thrust will be reduced and the airplane pulled on to too high
angle of attack will be prone to stall.
When the rockets have emptied 2x125 kg of
extra weight and also additional air resistance. (Must be noted
in turns and when opening landing flaps.)
Rockets are dropped by the bombardier at
not less than 125 m from the ground.
Release lever (which is kept behind pilot's
seat) is put on its place to right, low next to the pilot's
seat and the lever is pulled up.
Rockets are not allowed under no
circumstance to be released when in use.
Nevertheless the pilot can at any moment
without any danger release the rockets either using them up or
switching them of before the release.
Only in emergency the release will be done
at less than 150 m, because then the parachute will not
have time to open and the rockets will be
Rockets have been properly jettisoned when
the markers disappear.
If after operating the release lever one or
both signal lamps are still on, the airplane is briefly pulled
when holding the release lever pulled up. If the rockets do not
drop the flight has to be aborted. Landing with the rockets
aboard will be executed ordinarily as long as the maximum
landing weight is not exceeded.
After releasing the rockets the rocket
switch box switch has to be set to position "Off ("Aus").
Landing flaps are raised to OY position
after retracting the undercarriage and when safe altitude is
Speeds at most efficient climbing flight:
Va = 250 km/h close to sea-level
Va = 240 km/h at 6000m altitude.
Smallest speed Va = 230 km/h.
No later than after 30 minutes the throttle
and along with it, the propeller pitch lever, must be returned
to the position of normal power:
Up to 6500m altitude
n = 2250 RPM
p= 1.15 ATA
Over 6500m altitude
n = 2400 RPM
When initial climb has ended and
approximately 500m altitude has been reached, must the switches
right of the machine gun operator position "VS automatic, left
engine" ("VS Automatik, links Antrieb") and "VS automatic, right
engine" ("VS Automatik, rechts Antrieb") must be pressed.
Enriching lever is kept during climb in
"normal" position of the normal - rich alternatives until the
rated altitude (of the super charger).
When over the rated altitude and maximum
power for combat is needed, Enriching lever(lever left of pilots
seat) must be kept in position "Rich" ("Reich in Hohe"). After
the combat has ended lever is set again to "normal" position.
Changing super charger gear
Gear change happens automatically in the
position "Automatic" ("Automatik").
a. In climbing flight the change from low
gear to high gear happens at 3,0 km +/.300m altitude.
b. In descending flight the change from
high gear to low gear happens even 400m lower than the change
happened in climbing flight.
c. Depending from the position of the
throttle lever. If throttle is reduced in 3500m altitude, the
automatic control will change the gear to low when ATA is 0,7 -
0,85 and RPM n = 2400. At higher altitude with equal throttle
setting ATA is respectively lower. When throttle is increased
again the high gear is automatically engaged at approximately
same position where it was disengaged.
If the gear change happens in the engines
happens at unequal height, the automatic control has to be
repaired (on the ground) in such way that both engines will
switch gears nearly simultaneously.
If one of the engines switches too early,
the gear switching lever is held switched until the second
engine switches gears.
When manually switching gears it is
imperative to reduce the throttle in advance. After the gear
change has happened the power is returned again to cruise
When switching from low gear to high gear
manifold pressure can rise over the permitted until the
adjusting mechanism catches up.
Manifold pressure adjuster
Manifold pressure, when once set, will
remain automatically the same all through the climb without
adjusting the throttle, until the gear changing altitude is
reached. At that time one must not compensate the drop with
throttle or the manifold pressure will rise too high after the
Automatic direction steering
Automatic direction steering must not be
switched on until 300m altitude has been reached.
Operating temperatures and pressures
a. Temperature of retuning cooler fluid
It must not drop below 401C (when
descending), and it is mostly between 80 - 1001C in cruising and
following values should not be normally exceeded:
Limit for evaporation of the fluid is a few
degrees above these temperatures. If the limit is exceeded, the
circulation of the cooler fluid does not stop (contrary to Jumo
211 A, B and C engines). In special cases e.g. on hot summer
days, while climbing, is the temperature of the returning cooler
fluid allowed to rise up to 1201C (for short periods,
approximately 10 min).
In normal situations the temperature has to
be kept within the limits of the table above. The pilot of the
aeroplane is warned about the of the temperature of the
returning cooler fluid rising above 1201C by the steam
formation; cooler fluid loss is small at that point.
When flying in such way that the steam is
formed, throttle must not be reduced to idle position with one
pull, because then the loss of engine RPM causes the pressure in
cooling system to drop below of what is needed to keep up the
main circulation, resulting in very heavy increase in steam
formation and pressure build-up.
If the forming of steam is noticed at
temperatures which are below the do-not-exceed values stated
above, the breathing valve of the of the cooling system must be
turned (in front of the cooler fluid container).
The problem has to be declared to the crew
chief after landing.
When adjusting the cooler fluid
temperature, also engine oil temperature has to be observed. The
values given in the following paragraph must not be lower or
higher than stated.
b. Temperatures for returning oil
The gauge is located in the engine cowling.
Temperatures must not be less than 30YC
(when using the cold start method) nor more than 105YC.
In cruise approximately 80YC.
Adjustment happens automatically with
If the maximal allowable temperatures for
cooler fluid and engine oil are exceeded, cowl flaps have to be
opened or engine power reduced.
When using the cold start method the engine
oil temperatures are checked only after about one hour after
take-off (when fuel has evaporated), although during this time,
if possible, 701C(in winter) or 85IC(in summer) should not be
c. Engine oil pressure
During warm up run of the engines (on the
ground) minimum of 5,5 ATA, but not over 9 ATA Lowest pressure
at rated altitude (high gear at n = 2400 RPM and oil temperature
60 - 701C) is 4,0 ATA. When using the cold start method
reduction to 3,5 ATA is allowed.
d. Fuel pressure
1,0 - 2,0 ATA. When also fuel transfer
pumps are switched on, it should rise to value 2,0 - 2,5 ATA.
Fuel pressure must not drop above rated altitude below 1,0 ATA.
When fuel pressure drops to below 1,0 ATA
the fuel booster pumps are electrically switched on. It has to
be noted, that if these are only switched to PI, despite the
switched on fuel transfer pumps, the pressure in P2 can drop
already at low altitude.
Otherwise the fuel booster pumps will only
be switched on during take-off, dive and landing (because of the
possibility of abortion, and resulting pull and take-off).
After each enemy contact pumps are checked
by first switching on P1, and then P2, so that damaged fuel
lines could be immediately discovered.
Enriching lever is in position "Normal".
a) Cruising speeds when mixture control is
in position "Lean" ("Arm") and enriching lever in position
1.10 - 1.15
b) Maximum speeds when mixture control is
in position "Rich" ("Reich") and enriching lever in position
1.15 - 1.25
In points a and b: the change of enriching
to position "Rich" ("Reich") will happen automatically when the
lever is set to position "Normal" and manifold pressure reaches
1,17 - 1,23 ATA.
Consumption of engine oil at 2250 RPM and
manifold pressure at 1,15 ATA, is at the maximum ca. 12 liters
per hour per engine.
Fuel consumption measuring (left out from
the newer variants)
Switch in the left part of the instrument
Instrument in the left part.
The following differences between indicated
left and right engine consumptions are allowed in the enriching
lever is in position "Normal":
When P2 = 0,8 and 1,0 ATA up to 20 1/h
When P2 = 1,25 ATA up to 40 1/h
Fig. 1 Fuel and lubricant quantity gauges
Automated switch between normal - rich
happens with manifold pressure 1,17 - 1,23 ATA
All other values:
Best flying altitudes
RPM's and manifold pressures, and
Ranges and flying times
Are available for Ju 88 A-4 and it's
variants can be found in "flying time table", made by flight
research centre Rechlin.
Measurements of the fuel and oil quantities
(see picture 1 )
Two instruments next to the selector switch
on the right wall.
a. Measuring the quantity of fuel (scale
for flying position), when switch is in
Position 1 : Quantity of fuel in forward
fuselage tank is shown by the instrument on the right.
Position 2 : Left and right outer wing fuel
tanks can be read simultaneously from the instruments on left
Position 3 : Left and right inner wing fuel
tanks can be read simultaneously from the instruments on left
The quantity of fuel in two external, and
rearward fuselage, fuel tanks is not measured.
b. Measuring the quantity of oil (scale for
flying position), when switch is in
Position 4 : Left engine oil container
quantity is shown on the left instrument.
Position 5 : Right engine oil container
quantity is shown on the left instrument.
The quantity of oil in auxiliary oil tank
is not measured.
In both points a. and b. measurements are
Fuel intake to the engines happens only
from both inner wing tanks (feeding tanks). Surveying of both of
these tanks must be frequent. If fuel consumption is uneven,
fuel amount can be balanced with the use of fuel transfer pump.
Fuel transfer pumping and connecting the
(See pictures 2,3 and 4)
1. use in normal situations.
In take-off the connection must be such, that both engines are
fed from the inner wing tanks on their respective wings, their
feeding tanks. Valve battery switch A in position II. If the
aeroplane is equipped with jettisonable external tanks, one must
not pump fuel from them to feeding tank at the earliest 20 min
after taking-off, because otherwise the fuel will go to waste by
leaking through the tanks air vent.
1. Switch box
2. Enriching switch
3. Fuel emergency jettisoning - forward
4. Fuel emergency jettisoning - rearward
5. Pull-out button
6. Two switches for fuel feeding pumps
(fuel tank pumps)
7. Switches 1,2,3,5,6,8 for fuel
8. Transfer pumping diagram
9. Signal lamp for lubricant tank
10. Signal lamp for fuel tank emptying
11. Signal lamp for fuel tank filling up
Fig. 2 Switch box for fuel transfer
pumping and fuel emergency jettisoning
In normal situations the fuel has to be
pumped only after the fuel level in both tanks should have
dropped to 200 liters (that is after ca. 50 min of flying time).
Time taken by the transfer pumping of
300 liters is ca. 18 minutes.
If only one external fuel tank is
carried, both engines have to be connected to that feeding tank
(valve battery switch in position A I or III) which is fed by
the external tank.
When both external tanks are empty, the
radio operator jettisons, when in level flight at cruise speed
or slower, the tanks by pulling the red tank jettison lever
(between fuselage frames 8a and 8b) with force.
The aeroplane may be damaged if the
jettisoning of the tanks is done at higher air speed.
Transfer pumping order.
The following order for transfer pumping
has to be strictly followed.
Both drop tanks switches - 1 and 2
Rearward fuselage tank switch - 8
Wing tanks switches - 5 and 6
Forward fuselage tank switch - 3
Transfer pumping switch box is located
on the left wall behind the fuse box. Switching the tanks (see
Valve battery switch A.
(Down low in center at the frame 9) Is
used for switching on fuel feeding lines to the engines.
Valve battery switch B.
(down low to right at frame 8, close
fuel emergency hand pump) Is used for transfer pumping from both
a) Only to the left feeding tank
b) Simultaneously to both feeding tanks
c) Only to the right feeding tank
And also from left side outer wing tank
as in points a) and b) and from right side outer wing tank as in
points b) and c).
Valve battery switch C.
(up on the right, at frame 9) Is used in
fuel transfer pumping in special (with hand pump) cases.
a) From left side outer wing tank
b) From forward fuselage fuel tank
c) From right side outer wing tank.
Also used for transfer pumping the fuel
from forward fuselage tank in normal flight (position II).
Transfer pumping and switching the fuel
lines, when one or both jettisonable fuel tanks are empty, as
1. Switching the fuel lines when
transfer pumping. Valve battery switches A, B and C are in
normal position II.
Fig. 3 The switch box for fuel transfer pumping and the fuel
transfer pumping diagram
Both fuel pump selectors are
in position "PI + P2".
2. Transfer pumping is done with the
electrical transfer pumps
a. After first warning of emptying of the
feeding tanks. Switch 8 is switched on, the contents of rearward
fuselage fuel tank is pumped simultaneously to left and right
feeding tanks. When the w a r n i n g of the feeding tanks
filling up comes, fuel transfer pump is switched off until 10
minutes, and then again switched on, until the rearward fuselage
tank is empty.
b. After second warning of emptying of
one of the feeding tanks.
Switches 5 and 6 are switched on. In
this case the contents of left and rig lit outer wing tanks is
pumped to respective feeding tanks.
When the filling up warning comes, the
transfer pumps are turned off, and swicthed on again after 20
minutes, and this is continued until both of the outer wing
tanks have emptied.
c. After third warning of emptying of one
of the feeding tanks
Switch 3 is switched on. In this case the
contents of forward fuselage tank is pumped to respective
feeding tanks. When the warning of the feeding tanks filling up
comes, fuel transfer pump is switched off.
d. After fourth warning of emptying of one
of the feeding tanks.
Switch 3 is switched on again. Fuel left in
the forward fuselage tank is pumped to the feeding tanks.
3. Switching the fuel lines after transfer
If all transfer pumping between fuel tanks
has been performed, it means:
Valve battery switches B and C are still in
Valve battery switch A is kept in the
normal position II right until the next emptying warning.
Feeding tanks are flown empty singly, one
a. After fifth warning of emptying of one
of the feeding tanks.
Valve battery switch A is set to position
Both engines a re then fed from the left
Right hand side engine fuel pump selector
(FB) switch (left on the
instrument panel) is set to position "PI".
Fuel pump selector switch then also closes
other feeding line to the right engine. Close monitoring of the
fuel content instruments is in such ca se absolutely necessary,
(instrument switch in position
3. left instrument, upper readings).
b. When left feeding tank has been used for
flying until it only has 5 0 litres left.
Fig. 4 Locations of valve battery switches
A, B and C, and the manual fuel transfer pump lever
c. Valve battery switch A is set to
Both e n g i n e s are then fed from the
right feeding tank.
Both engine fuel pump selector (FB)
switches are set to position "P1 + P2".
Selector then also closes other feeding
line to the right engine. When doing this the left engine is
also fed with the remaining 50 liters in the left feeding tank.
To note in point 3a.
Because of the possibility of erroneous
indication on the fuel measuring instrument, it is possible that
feeding from the left feeding tank is continued for too long
time. Therefore it is imperative to follow the running of the
engines closely, and at the first sight of engines running
unevenly t o turn the valve battery switch A to position III,
and continue the flight according to instructions in the point
The indicator below the pump switch box has
, as mentioned before, warning indicators for filling up and
emptying for both feeding tanks. Filling up warning (V), when
tank has 3501.
Emptying warning (L), when tank has 1001.
When filling up warning turns on, transfer
pumps have to be switched off, as otherwise fuel will be lead to
tank breathing air pipes and wasted.
2. use in special situations, (transfer
pumping with the hand pump)
If the electrical transfer pump is out
of action for one reason or other, it is possible to pump
manually the fuel from the forward fuselage tank and from the
left and ri ght outer fuel tanks to the left or right feeding
The fuel in the rearward fuselage tank and
in jettisonable tanks cannot be pumped manually to the feeding
The hand pump lever is located on the right
fuselage wall down low at the frame 8a.
Manual pumping is performed by the machine
gun operator, or by the wireless operator.
Pumping 300 liters manually will take:
at sea level
ca. 20 minutes
at 4000m altitude
ca. 25 minutes
Filling up signal has to be observed when
Transfer pumping order
a) both outer wing tanks
b) forward fuselage tank
Switching the tanks (see pictures 4 and 5)
With valve battery switches B and C.
Switch to the tank to pumped in is done
with t switch C.
Position I: Left outer wing tank
Position II: Fuselage tank
Position III: Right outer wing tank
Distribution of the pumped fuel to the
feeding with the valve battery switch B.
Position I: Left feeding tank, "Left"
Position II: Both feeding tanks, "Left and
right" ("Links und rechts").
Position III: Right feeding tank, "Right"
Fig. 5 Fuel transfer pumping system for manual transfer pumping
That means that the pumping can be
performed from both outer wing tanks to the feeding tank on the
same side or on the opposite side, or to both feeding tanks
This possibility has to be remembered
especially for the case when one of the feeding tanks is
Transfer pumping of engine oil.
Applies only if an auxiliary oil tank is
installed in the left wing.
Transfer pumping can only be performed
Manual pumping is performed by the machine
gun operator, or by the wireless operator.
The switch of the tank and the hand pumping
lever are located between the frames 8 and 8a on the left
fuselage wall and above the left flying controls.
Transfer switch is set to the position of
the tank to be transferred to.
When the main oil tank contents has been
reduced to 30 litres, the transfer pumping is performed by
pumping 5 liters at a time to both oil tanks (for achieving even
distribution and taking possible single-engine flight in to
The instrument below the switch box also
gives the filling up warning.
The two switches in the switch box "Feeding
pumping" ("Forderpumpen"), "Lubricant left and lubricant right"
(Schmierstoff links und Schmierstoff recths") for electrical
pumping of oil into the engines are not switched on (switches
aren't installed at all to newer switch boxes, see picture 5).
After transfer pumping of oil the transfer
pumping switch has to be set to the position that was not used
for pumping oil last. This will prevent the oil leaking back to
the auxiliary tank.
Two pull handles have been installed to the
left instrument panel between pilot's and wireless operator's
Fully pulled out
= warm air
=apparatus turned off
When frost appears electrical heating of
the left windshield panel is switched on.
On the left side of the fuselage beside the
instrument panel. Signal lamp must be on (only Ju 88 D-1).
If there is no heating equipment and
frosting happens, or when in rain, the left most windshield
panel has to be hilly opened and locked to the open position.
6. Flight in conditions where there is a
risk of freezing.
Pitot-pipe heating has to be switched on.
(switch to left from the pilot) Anti-freezing equipment has to
be switched on.
a. Anti-freezing equipment of the elevator.
Operating switch on the instrument panel
(frames 5a and 6) is switched to position "On" ("Auf').
b. Anti-freezing equipment of the wing.
Operating switch for right and left wings
on the instrument panel (frames 6 and 7) is switched to position
When the outside temperature is below OY
the wing heating has to be switched on. The reason for this is
the heating for the operating cylinder of the dive-brakes, and
for the auxiliary oil tank and to the pipes leading to it.
c. Suction air apparatus (for tropic
planes, not installed)
Operating switch can be switched to
position "Suction air direct" ("Ansaugluft ungefiltert") only
when air speed is less than 260km/h.
d. Anti-freezing equipment of the
Operating switch on the main panel has to
be switched on.
Switch with operating lever is in the right
side panel (frame 6).
2 positions: "Full" ("Voll") and "Half'
It has to be noted that the anti-freeze
fluid for the propellers will only last for 2 hours. Therefore
the anti-freeze equipment has to be only switched on when there
duly is a risk of freezing: immediately when the zone, where
freezing may occur, has been left behind, equipment must be
To the points a - b.
Continuous observation is not necessary.
e. Heating panels
Because heating panels do not have
thermostats, the following guidelines have to be followed to
1. While on the ground only short duration
(10 sec) switching on is done. Contact surfaces that are not
protected with Perspex extensions , are painted with protective
lacquer "Garantator" (Ordering number: Flieglack #7151).
2. While the plane is standing still prior
to taxiing, the plates are only switched on until the mist
clears from the panels (also applies for normal flight).
3. When external freezing happens while
flying in clouds or in snowstorm, the heating plate has to be
immediately switched on and kept on as long as freezing occurs.
After clearing the freezing zone heating has to be switched off.
4. When not in level flight and diving
(entering from cold air to warm layer of air), due to excessive
coldness of the plane, misting can be expected and the heating
can be switched on in advance. After ending such flying th
heating must be immediately switched off.
When using the heating plates mentioned
above, the use of Nordland-plates is not anymore necessary as
the heating plates, when taking the above mentioned in to
account, fulfill fully their task.
7. High altitude flight
When performing a high altitude flight at
more than 4000m altitude the interior temperature of the cockpit
has to be kept above OY
Pressure of oxygen has to be checked. When
the pressure is 150ATA, the contents in the fuselage tanks alone
will last for 6 operating hours, and the fuselage tanks and wing
tanks in the right wing combined will last for 9 operating hours
when all the breathing masks are in use.
Oxygen tanks in Ju 88 C-6 will last for
8. Flight in bad weather
a. Taking off in bad weather
Blind take-off (fog) is not possible with
hilly loaded airplane.
Take-off with the use of automatic
directional steering is not possible.
Taking off in bad weather requires enough
visibility to see the edges of the field and at least 20-3 0m of
vertical visibility (obstacles around the field): at night a
light must be seen some 4-5km and the cloud base must be at
100-150m. Take-off trim must have been set in flight. Trim is
set to cruise when 200m altitude has been reached. Rain
protection cover has to be put on the radio equipment. When
radio is used the press buttons are opened from the cover in the
cable duct, cover is rolled together and put in storage between
the fuselage and the radio equipment frame.
b. Blind flight
1. Blind flight at cruise speed
Climbing and descending flight causes no
When at over 6000m altitude the elevator
controls are comparatively light.
In northerly (N-) direction of flight with
the automatic steering there is slight veering, which can be
corrected with opposite steering.
Long blind flights are only performed with
planes which have operational directional steering.
2. Blind flight while steering from the
right hand side seat. Is performed only with directional engaged
Main instruments: artificial horizon, the
banking indicator ball underneath the gyro-compass. It has to be
taken care that the commander does not block the line of sight
to the other instruments like variometer or air speed indicator
with navigation map. Commander makes the position markings with
the help of the direction indicator.
3. Radio direction finding.
Radio direction finding is performed by the
commander or the co-pilot of the airplane. In this case the
pilot seat is set to it's lowest position. Intercom (EiV-)
switch is switched in the switch box ADb 11 (at right on the
frame 6) in to position "Nav".
4. Receiving of the wireless operator with
radio direction finding equipment. Local weather service.
If the long wave receiver is damaged, or if
it is needed to receive local civilian weather reports outside
the bandwidth of FuG X, the commander or the co-pilot tunes the
radio direction finding equipment (correction diagram has to be
used). Wireless operator performs the connection.
c. Landing in bad weather
Because of the fast rate of descent it is
necessary to perform drills when the weather and visibility is
good. Landing in bad weather is performed with the help of the
directional steering. Banking turns have to be performed evenly,
or severe veering off the course will happen.
The landing itself must not be performed
with the directional steering.
Blind landing is not possible if the fog
reaches right down to ground.
Normal values for landing flight:
Landing flap angle
25Y(landing flight position)
11000 kg or less
1. Blind landing based on signals (Ukw-)
a. In landing flight right until the
preliminary signal (VE). Minimum altitude 250m
b. From the preliminary signal (VE) right
until the main signal (HE).
Manifold pressure 0,7 ATA.
Indicated airspeed 210-200 km/h (at HE)
Indicated descent 4 m / sec
Altitude over HE 50m.
c. From the main signal (HE) right until
the landing At HE both throttles are slowly pulled back to
Landing flaps are opened hilly, and at the
same time elevators adjust accordingly.
Rate of descent 6 m/sec.
Contact to ground when landing flaps are
hilly (501) opened ca. 10 sec, that is 600-700m after hearing
the main signal (300-400 m from the edge of the field).
Just prior to touching down the rate of
descent has to be reduced by pulling the airplane to higher
angle of attack: not to stall landing, then there is risk of
dropping a wing.
Landing flaps are set to taking off
position (251) only after the airplane has traveled 1000-2000m
counting from the hearing of the main signal. When increasing
the angle of the landing flaps, and when elevator adjusts
accordingly, there will be notable tail heaviness, which is
necessary in the final part of the landing flight prior touching
2. Blind landing based on signal strength
On the other hand the great rate of descent
and long landing roll on the ground, and on the other hand the
steep glide path with landing flaps fully opened does not allow
for big differences in duration of throttle reduction.
Radio direction alternations, cross-wind
based errors, multiplied by the fast approach of the aeroplane,
and deceleration from the blending of the engine noise and the
"ZZ"-signal prevent the necessary accurate position finding in
the final approach.
All landing methods that are based on
hearing a signal from the ground are therefore unsuitable for Ju
88 airplane. Only exception are airfields that are longer than
4. Flaring off
Aborting the landing and following taking
off again are performed as explained in the paragraph II Dl.
9. Night flying.
Taking off and landing at night time.
1. Length of runway lighting 450m (10 white
lanterns) at minimum.
2. The end of the runway is marked with red
lanterns which are 50 from the end.
3. On fields where electricity is
available, are on dark nights obstacles and the edge of the
runway lit on along the distance of the longer side of the field
(front and back) and widely (to allow for larger variation of
flight paths in take-off and landing).
Before taking off the flash suppressors
have to be installed on the exhausts.
Landing light (only used during take-off
and landing) is switched on by pressing the switch on the left
Instrument lighting is switched on with a
switch on the right cockpit wall.
Adjusting the brightness of the sighting
device reticule is done by rotating a knob on the device.
Cockpit is covered: windows with draw
front dome: lowering a curtain located
behind the instrument panel.
10. Taking off with Siemens K4 U
directional steering device
Switching on the directional steering
The knob of the direction setting rose on
the directional gyro is pressed.
Main switch is set to Stage 1 (instrument
panel in the front): directional gyro switches.
With the direction setter on the steering
column the base of the directional gyro (upper gradient) is
matched with the desired direction in the Patin secondary
With the adjusting knob the directional
gyro rose(lower gradient) is set to match with the directional
gyro base (upper gradient) (pressing the adjusting knob
disconnects the steering). Knob is pulled again.
Main switch is set to Stage 2: directional
steering is switched on.
When the automatic steering device is
switched on the aileron and elevator controls can be handed over
to the bombardier to allow the pilot to rest or to perform other
Bombardier then connects the auxiliary
steering column (on the right wall) to it's socket (on
bombardier's seat low left).
During take-off and landing the auxiliary
steering column must be detached from it's socket.
1. Pilot of the airplane
Only with the direction setting switch(in
the aileron control fork) the directional gyro base is set to
the new, desired flying direction.
Directional setting switch has 3 positions,
which make different turning speeds possible:
1. position 1Y sec
2. position 2Y sec (directional steering
disengages, smallest radius turn in blind flight)
3. position 2,7Y sec
The banking indicator ball on the
directional gyro must then be mainly in the middle (visual
checking). Airplane is kept in the right turning position with
the use of ailerons.
2. Bombardier (bombing run)
The engaging switch in the direction
setting device LRg 5 is switched on.
Warning lamp lights on t h e instrument
panel, and shows the pilot that the bombing run performed by the
ATTENTION: When the signal lamps on the
directional gyro are on, the pilot must not use the direction
setting switch in the aileron control fork, because it will
disengage the LRg 9. Bombardier sets the new position to the
directional gyro by using the directional setter in the bomb-
When in danger
1. The knob on the directional gyro is
2. The main switch is turned to far left to
position "Off, ("Aus") or
3. The emergency disengaging knob on the
left of the bombardiers seat is pulled or
4. By forcefully pressing the rudder pedals
the controls are forced to operate in a other way than the
directional steering is operating.
If the procedure in the point three is
used, the directional steering cannot be switched on during the
flight (main switch in position 1).
11. Flying in inclined flight direction
Flight on inclined plane downwards can be
performed in following ways:
a. inclined descending flight (up until
201) without pull-out device and without dive- brakes.
b. dive-flight with pull-out device and
c. dive-flight with pull-out device but
a. inclined descending flight (up until
201) without pull-out device and without dive-brakes.
Supercharger gear lever in position
"Automatic" ("Automatik"), high gear will automatically switch
off to low gear when reducing throttle to idling.
Propeller governor lever is set to position
n = 2200RPM (VS 11-propeller 9-21024 A-3).
If the plane is installed with VS-propeller
9-21024 A-6, the propeller governor lever has to be set to n =
Propeller governor will maintain the
highest permissible RPM.
On VDM -propellers (Ju 88 D-5, D-5 Trop)
propeller setting g-15.
Enriching lever in position "Normal".
Radiator flaps hilly closed.
Directional steering disengaged.
Highest permissible speeds:
Va = 675 km/h up until 2km altitude.
Va = 600 km/h above 2km altitude.
Pull-out is performed manually with the
help of the elevator trim tabs (especially near the ground
b. dive-flight with pull-out device and
1. Contact altimeter is set to dropping
2. Switch on the lower side of the main
distribution box is set to position "Zielanflug -
3. The aeroplane is trimmed for diving
flight. Red line on the elevator trim tab adjusting wheel must
be pointing directly up, and the aileron and rudder trim
indicators must be set to the red marks
4. Radiator flaps are closed.
5. Propeller governor lever is set to
position n = 2300RPM (or 2200 RPM, see above).
6. Supercharger gear lever in position
7. Enriching lever in position "Normal".
8. Dive brake switch is set to position
9. Simultaneously when the plane turns in
to nose-heavy and to diving position, throttles are pulled to
Greatest permissible speed:
Va = 575 km/h at 0-6km altitude
Attention: Dive is aborted if dive brakes
are not opened.
10. Bomb release button is pressed when the
signal horn sound in the Intercom device (EiV) ends.
If the bombs are not dropped , the pull-out
button on the right cockpit wall has to be pressed instead of
the bomb dropping button.
11. If the pull-out device malfunctions for
some reason or another, the pull- out can be achieved by
forcefully pulling the control column, pressing the the dive-
brake switch back to position "Closed" ("Ein") and by using the
elevator trim tabs as help (about 1V2 turns).
Addition to the point 3.
Under no circumstances the nose-heavy
tendency that is caused by opening the dive brakes must not be
trimmed out with the trim tabs, because the airplane will then
significantly exceed 3g acceleration in pull-out.
In a dive performed according to the
regulations, the force needed on the yoke will be reduced to 0kg
as the speed increases.
Addition to the point 8
Airplane thus becomes trimmed nose-heavy,
but can still be kept in level flight. Indicator sticks in the
wings(lower white mark has to be visible, hydraulic oil pressure
must be 85-95ATA) are used to verify that the dive-brakes are
Addition to the point 9
The inclination of the flight path can be
noted in KuVi and with the red dive angle markings in the nose
of the airplane. The red dive angle line going around the top of
the cockpit (50T) is used to compare the dive angle with the
There is a multicolored dive angle scale
40Y-70Ygiving the dive angle in the left sliding window panel.
c. Dive-flight with pull-out device but
Allowed only from starting position above
2000m. Points 1-7 are followed as described in paragraph 1 lb.
8. Trim adjustment (behind the dive-brake
switch) knob is briefly pressed. Airplane is then trimmed
nose-heavy, but can still be kept in level flight easily.
9. Simultaneously when the plane turns in
to nose-heavy and to diving position, throttles are pulled to
Greatest permissible speed: Vamax= 500 km/h
Points 10-11 are performed as described in
paragraph 1 lb.
d. Height loss during pull-out.
1. inclined descending flight (up until
201) with pull-out acceleration of 2g.
Va = 675 km/h
Va = 600 km/h
height loss h=300m height loss h=300m
2. dive-flight with pull-out device and
dive-brakes, with pull-out acceleration of 3g and at Va = 575
height loss h=530m at 50Ydive angle
height loss h=700m at 60Ydive angle
height loss h=900m at 70Ydive angle
3. dive-flight with pull-out device but
without dive-brakes, with pull-out acceleration of 3g and at Va
= 550 km/h .
height loss h=460m at 50Ydive angle
height loss h=650m at 60Ydive angle
height loss h=850m at 70Ydive angle
e. Climb-flight following pull-out
After pull-out dive brakes are closed, and
throttle is slowly increased until manifold pressure reaches
1,25 AT A
When under enemy anti-aircraft fire engine
rpm can be raised to n=2600RPM, and manifold pressure to 1,4ATA
for a short duration.
Propeller governor is set to match the
engine RPM to the manifold pressure. Switch on the lower side of
the main distribution box is set to position "Marschflug -
12. Flight with photographing equipment
a. Objective heating and warm air heating
for the Rb. Both of these have to be switched on.
Every serial photographing setter device is
set to "120" or "Stauluft".
b. Heating of the photographing equipment
(This equipment isn't installed on newer
aeroplanes which are equipped with electrical heating already in
the paragraph a.)
Device can only be switched on when the
undercarriage is retracted and the flying altitude is below
The switch "Karcher-oven" in the instrument
panel is switched on. Heating switch is on the right side of the
fuselage, behind the frame 6. Heating observation instrument is
on the right side of the fuselage behind the frame 5.
Switching on: Heating switch is set to
position "Cold" ("Kalt"). After 30 seconds it is set to position
Use: Heating observation instrument has to
show minimum of 40X If the temperature is lower, the device is
switched off. The cause of the problem is to be found and
Switching off: Is done no later than 5 min
before landing. Heating switch is set to "Cold"("Kalt"). After 3
minutes switch is set to position "Off' ("Aus").
c. Operating the photographing equipment.
Serial photographing setter device is set
forward from "120" or "Stauluft". By turning the knob further it
is possible to set the photographing interval from 90 seconds to
Serial photographing device's warning lamp
will lit ca. 2 sec before shutter opens and will remain lit as
long as the shutter remains open. Two other warning lamps are on
the right side of the fuselage, below the flare ammunition box.
Lamps which show the running of the film in the cameras, will
keep flashing as long as the film keeps going on.
The number of photographs taken can be seen
on the mechanical counter on the serial photographing device.
After photographing has ended serial photographing device and
the signal lamps are switched off. The sliding hatch of the
photographing aperture is closed.
Maximum permissible 1anding weight: 12000kg
Normal landing weight: 11000kg
IMPORTANT: Landing is only performed
without bomb load and wit h external fuel tanks being empty.
Landing with bombs on board can be
performed only if when with the take-off weight of 13,75 tones
2150 liters of fuel has been used or jettisoned.
Landing with start rockets is not possible
because then the maximum landing weight would be exceeded.
In emergency bombs are dropped to specially
chosen areas (closed area) secured.
Emergency jettisoning of fuel (only
possible from the fuselage tanks) is performed as follows:
The switch "Emergency jettison"
("Schnellablass") is on the switch box (left cockpit wall) can
be accessed by opening a securing lid.
The forward fuselage tank is emptied first
then the rearward fuselage tank.
(emptying of both fuselage tanks
simultaneously is forbidden, because this prevents emptying of
the other tank , when the other one is already empty.)
Lever is set to position "On" ("Ein").
Time for emptying when n=2250RPM
a) for full forward fuselage tank (1200 1)
= 1 min 40 sec.
b) For full rearward fuselage tank (680 1)
= ca. 1 min.
Jettisoning can be aborted by turning the
lever to position "Off' ("Aus"). The smallest amount of fuel.
When running out of fuel one of the feeding
tanks can be flown to empty state, when only the other one has
551 as the smallest necessary amount of fuel, for the
possibility of having to abort the landing and flare off again.
Valve battery switch A to position 1, right
engine fuel pump selector (FB) to position "PI" when:
When the smallest amount of fuel is in the
right feeding tank.
Electrical transfer pump has to be switched
to the according feeding pump (for possible flaring off).
Auxiliary steering column is disconnected
from it's socket if it was used. Machine gun operator sits on
his folding seat facing forward (laying in the gondola is
Wireless operator's seat is in the lowest
position. Seat belts are fastened.
Directional steering main switch is set to
Supercharger lever is in the position
Enriching 1ever is set to the position
At sufficient altitude airspeed is reduced
to the value Va = 260 km/h. Radiator flaps are fully open.
Lever for air filtering to position
"Suction through the filter" ("Ansaugluft Gefiltert"). Landing
flaps are first set to position 25Y(middle position).
Operating lever is turned in direction
"Open" ("Aus") to position "Landing flaps" ("Landeklappe").
When the landing flaps are in the angle of
25Y, the operating lever is again returned to 0-position.
After this speed must not exceed Va = 255
km/h, because otherwise the landing flap securing will be opened
and the flaps have to be re-opened.
The changes in the aeroplanes balance are
corrected with manually adjusting the elevators trim tabs (large
hand wheel on the left cockpit wall).
The landing field is circulated in normal
turning flight at ca. Va = 220 km/h. Speed. The undercarriage is
lowered. Operating lever is set to position "Down" ("Aus").
When the indicator device shows that the
undercarriage and the tail wheel are fully lowered and locked,
one must wait for t sec until the undercarriage bay doors are
closed again. The overall time that this operation takes is ca.
25-28 sec. The undercarriage operating lever is returned to
Approx. 1-2 km before the airfield edge the
landing flaps (and the elevator) are set to full angle (501)
Operating lever is turned in direction
"Open" ("Aus") to position "Elevator and landing flaps"
("Hohenflosse und Landeklappe").
When landing flaps are in position the
operating lever is returned to 0-position(otherwise automatic
securing of the flaps will not function).
The entering oil temperature must not be
Landing speed : Va = 210 - 220 km/h.
Just prior to touching down throttle is
slowly reduced to the idling stops and the aeroplane is pulled
to 3-point landing attitude.
In strong winds and in gusty weather
landing must be performed accurately towards the wind and with
fully opened landing flaps at speed of Va = 220 km/h. Speed when
aeroplane touches the ground is, when landing weight is 11500kg,
Va = 160 km/h. Simultaneously pilot pulls
hard to straighten the plane.
Landing run distances in windless
conditions when brakes are used:
When weight is 11500kg = 500-700m from
touching down until the aeroplane has stopped.
When weight is 11500kg = 700-900m from over
a 20m high obstacle until the aeroplane has stopped.
Brakes are used only if it is absolutely
If the landing is a training landing or if
brakes were heavily used, a break of few minutes must be taken
to cool down the wheel brakes, before they are used again (while
taxiing). Landing flaps are pulled to cruising position while
When landing flaps are fully closed , the
operating lever is set to 0-position. Only after this it is
possible to perform turning while taxiing. Exiting from the
When opening the C-position for exiting
from the aeroplane, the hatch is carefully lowered with the use
of rope, not let to freely fall open.
14. Stopping the engines
Radiator flaps are fully open.
Already in landing pattern the radiator
flaps have to be fully opened to achieve lower cooling fluid
temperature and so that the flawless turning off the engines
would be possible. If the cooling fluid temperature is very
high, the engines have to be run at ca. 1200 - 1400 rpm speed
with low manifold pressure (ca 0,7ATA), until the engine cools
down. During this the plane must be facing the wind.
Engines are stopped when the temperature
reaches 115KC. Throttle is left ca. 1200RPM setting.
Enriching 1 e v e r is set to the position
Main fuel cock is closed (simultaneously
instant stopping mechanism in the fuel injection pumps is
actuated). Ignition is switched off.
If the engine backfires or rotates
backwards, the throttle is set to full and propellor is
feathered. N ever switch on the ingnition again. Before the
engine stops close the radiator flaps.
When the engine has stopped, push the
network switch (instrument panel low left) and leave the
throttle to idling position. Main fuel cock is opened for a
short time (1-2 min) to easen up to engine start with cold
Switch in the left cockpit wall and the
radio equipment are switched off, all the switches in the switch
board are left switched on.
For cold start preparations before stopping
the engines see part III.
D. OPERATION IN EMERGENCY
1. Flaring off
Flaring off before landing has been fully
completed, with fully lowered landing flaps and undercarriage,
is possible. Even so when doing this an unpleasant phenomena of
very strong tail heaviness appears.
The RPM selector switch is kept in the
position n=2250RPM or in Ju 88 D-5 and Ju 88 D-5 Trop. Propellor
pitch is kep in the position 1150.
Throttle is slowly applied to full when
reaching the speed of Va = 220 km/h. The RPM selector switch can
be pushed along. Landing flaps are not closed.
Landing flap operating lever is kept in the
Due to increased air pressure the landing
flaps return to lower angle automatically, when speed has
increased over Va = 255 km/h (landing flap securing), and so
they must be re-opened when trying to land again.
Landing flaps are thus retracted only after
reaching 200m altitude, if they have not retracted themselves
Flaring off is made more difficult due to
the lag in the indication of instruments, especially with
altimeter and variometer. Main instrument along the turn and
bank indicator is thus air speed indicator.
All other function as in normal take-off.
Attention: Flaring off with lowered
undercarriage in single engine flight is not possible.
2. Pull-out mechanism is inoperational
If pull-out mechanism is inoperational, the
pull-out can be performed by using the elevator t rim tabs
(Approx. for 11/2 turns on the wheel to direction "Tail heavy"
("Schwanzlastig"), after which flight is continued and landing
When dive brakes are open, the dive brake
switch is set to position "Closed" ("Ein").
3. Hydraulic oil system is out of order
Switching diagrams for both hydraulic oil
emergency switches are kept next to the switches. Undercarriage
lever (in the left panel) is kept at the 0-position, while
landing flap operating lever is turned in direction "Open"
("Aus") to position "Landing flaps" ("Landeklappe"). The dive
brake switch is set to position "Closed" ("Ein").
1. Operating the undercarriage bay door
First the undercarriage bay doors are
opened, and second the undercarriage is lowered._ Right hand
side hydraulic oil emergency switch is switched to position 1
"Undercarriage bay doors emergency" ("Fahrgestellklappe - Not"),
manual pump operating lever (low left on the observers seat) is
set in place in the pump and with the pump the doors are opened
until the operating pressure starts to grow much. Undercarriage
bay doors are thus opened.
There is no dedicated indicator, but the
bay doors can be seen from the cockpit. The undercarriage
indicator does not show locked anymore when the bay doors are
opened even slightly.
2. Operating the undercarriage emergency
Lowering the undercarriage at speeds over
Va = 265 km/h is prohibited. The speed has to be reduced to Va =
200 km/h if possible to reduce the forces that need to be
overcome by the pumping action.
Lowering of the undercarriage with the
emergency operation takes ca. 3 min which equals to 180- 200
double pump strokes.
To prevent accidental switching on of the
emergency system prior opening the undercarriage bay doors to
position "Undercarriage" ("Fahrgestell"), is the righthand
hydraulic emergency switch equipped with a safety (press button)
between positions 2 and 3. Right hand side hydraulic emergency
switch is set to position 2 "Undercarriage -
emergency"("Fahrgestell - Not"), while simultaneously pressing
the safety, and then pumping down the undercarriage with the
manual pump, until the indicator shows "Undercarriage down"
("Fahrgestell ausgefahren) and "Locked"("Verriegelt").
Right hand side hydraulic emergency switch
is returned to position 3, and the undercarriage operating lever
to position 0.
During switching over the pumping has to be
paused. Pumping is only continued only when continuing with the
action described in point 3. Undercarriage bay doors are left
When using the emergency hydraulic switches
the tail wheel remains retracted inside the fuselage. Landing
has to be then used using the auxiliary tail spur. Taxiing with
the auxiliary tail spur is prohibited.
3. Operating the landing flap emergency
Lowering time for the landing flaps using
the emergency hydraulic switches - 30-35 seconds, equalling to
30-35 double strokes on the manual pump.
Left emergency hydraulic switch is set to
position 4 "Landing flaps - emergency" ("Landeklappe - Not").
Landing flaps are opened with the hand
For landing flap angles the following speed
restrictions have to be noted:
Take-off position (251) Take-off position
Va max = 250-320 km/h Va max = 255-275 km/h
When the use of emergency hydraulic switch
is finished, the emergency hydraulic switch has to be set to
position 6. When using the emergency hydraulic switch the
elevator will not function along with the flaps.
4. Operating the dive brake emergency
switch Only retracting the dive brakes is possible.
Retracting time is ca. 36-40 seconds
equalling to 36-40 dual strokes on the hand pump. Left emergency
hydraulic switch is set to position 5 "Dive brakes - emergency"
("Sturzflugbremseklappen - Not"). Dive brakes are fully
retracted with the hand pump.
After finishing the use of emergency
system, the hydraulic oil emergency switch is returned to
position 6. When using the emergency hydraulic switch the
elevator will not function and return to original position. It
must be corrected with the trim wheel.
If the limiter switch belonging to
electrical equipment does not function the pressure will remain
the device. In such case the switch "RAB - Pull-out device"
("RAB Abfang-Vorrictung") must be disconnected to spare the
When engines are off or when the engine
pumps are damaged, must all devices be operated with the
emergency system. Only when the emergency system is damaged it
is allowed to use hand pumping for all functions with by-passing
both hydraulic emergency switches 5 and 6, not counting in the
"Undercarriage up"("Fahrwerk einfahren") operation, as it would
require too much manual strength.
When propeller automatic malfunctions, it
is basically required to switch off the propeller automatic
operation by disconnecting the corresponding switch "VS
automatic left engine" ("VS Automatik links Antrieb") or "VS
automatic right engine" ("VS Automatik rechts Antrieb") in the
4. Malfunctions in the propeller automatic
When propeller automatic malfunctions, it
is basically required to switch off the propeller automatic
operation by disconnecting the corresponding switch "VS
automatic left engine" or "VS automatic right engine" in the
5. Engine trouble
In order to avoid difficult single engine
landings, the engine in question is stopped so quickly in case
of a malfunction, that it can be started again for short time
for landing. During the landing damaged engine is used with as
low power setting as possible.
Throttle is pulled back to idling.
Main fuel cock is closed.
Ignition is immediately switched off.
VS 11 propeller's manual selector is
pressed to position "Feathered"("Segelstellung") long enough
(ca. 10 sec), until the feathered state has been reached.
VDM propeller's manual selector is pressed
to position "Feathered"("Segelstellung") where it is locked. The
feathering time is ca. 40 sec, with propeller pitch indicator
showing 225 = 87X After reaching the feathered position the
switch is released. Radiator flaps are closed.
Fuel pumps for both feeding tanks are
immediately switched to operating engine ( switch box on the
left cockpit wall).
If the engine failure happens during
take-off or immediately after taking off, the switch to single
engine flight is not possible, even if the flying weight is such
that the normal single engine level flight would be possible.
In such case note the paragraph "Forced
If there is a fire in the engine
compartment the cockpit heating and de-icing lever for the wing
in question is switched "Off' ("Zu").
6. Single engine flight
1) Flying weight is reduced to suitable
weight (10500kg, maximum of 11000kg) required for single engine
level flight. To be performed:
a. Emergency bomb jettison.
b. Partial emptying of fuselage tank with
fuel jettison device (also see II C. 13) (Trailing antenna must
be winched in prior fuel jettison, otherwise risk of fire!)
c. Jettisoning of the wing bomb racks at
less than Va = 250 km/h speed.
d. Jettisoning of armor plates and all
unnecessary equipment from the plane; the jettisonable part of
C-position is not released as that would damage the aerodynamics
of the plane.
c. and d. Or performed only in such case
that the aeroplane cannot maintain level flight after performing
points a, b and c.
Addition to point c.: two sealed switches
in the middle above from the instrument panel. Switch in the
switch board "Wing racks jettison" ("Lastentrager -
Absprengung") must be switched on.
Operating switches are not turned
simultaneously, but one after another.
Addition to point d.: Four collapsible
armour plates for the radio equipment and other armour plates
are detached as follows:
Locking handle is turned around, and the
latch mechanisms on the armour plate sides are opened.
Hinge bolts are pressed upwards. The locks
in them are set parallel to the hinge bolt axis. Armour plates
are held fast. Hinge bolts are pulled off.
Armour plates are dropped from the open
C-position hatch (hatch to be closed after jettison).
2) If possible do not reduce speed under Va
= 250 km/h. Altitude can not be held by loosing airspeed.
If speed cannot be maintained for example
due gusts, aeroplane can be put into a shallow dive.
3) Landing flaps in cruise position OX
4) Undercarriage retracted.
5) On the running engine:
Manifold pressure p = 1,25 ATA
RPM n = 2400RPM (30 min climb and combat
RPM selection lever is is set to the
corresponding engine RPM.
6) Cooling fluid temperature and engine oil
temperature are closely followed. If the highest permissable
values are exceeded, power has to be reduced.
7) Weight of the rudder is reduced with the
8) Automatic direction steering is switched
on in a following way:
a. Direction gyro button is pressed.
b. Aeroplane is let to hang on the side of
the operating engine for one ball width in the turn and bank
indicator (directional gyro).
c. In front of the instrument panel on the
right, the switch for single engine flight is turned to the side
of the not operating engine (Va less than 270 km/h.).
d. The rose (directional gyro's lower
reading) is set parallel with the desired course.
e. Direction gyro button is pulled.
f. Direction is changed until the width of
the bubble evens out.
g. Beginning of the turn is with out
question helped with ailerons.
9) Because only one generator is operating,
the battery is heavily strained, when radio equipment and
direction steering are simultaneously used. Therefore the
transformer for FuG 10 transmitter set is switched on only when
necessary. BZA-device is disconnected.
10) Fuel is first fed from the tanks on the
side of the stopped engine.
Valve battery switch is simultaneously
turned to the side of the stopped engine and locked. The fuel
pump selector (FB) switch of the operating engine is in the
position "PI". The fuel on the fuel cells on the side of the
operating engine is cut out, and the fuel on the cells on the
side of the stopped engine is connected into use.
Banking in single engine flight.
Banking turn, especially on the side of
stopped engine, has to be performed without slipping and with
Fig. 6 Performing a single engine landing
7. Forced landing.
a. Landing from single engine flight (see
1) Flying weight has to be reduced as much
as possible (see. 6." Single engine flight", point 1.)
2) Airfield is to be kept on the side of
the operating engine, and the landing site is circulated in
3) While doing this altitude must not be
lower than 300m counting from the airfield, preferably not lower
4) The RPM selection lever is set to
position n = 2250RPM.
5) Landing flaps are set to 25Yangle.
6) Undercarriage is immediately lowered ,
when the landing signal cross on the near edge of the field can
be seen in 60Yangle relative to the flight path.
7) Landing flaps are opened to full angle
(501) on if, landing has been started from too high altitude,
otherwise landing is possible also when the landing flaps are in
the take-off position (251) (shallow glide path).
Attention: Undercarriage lowering times:
With engine 40 sec.
Manually 3 min; 180-200 pump strokes.
Landing flap opening times: With engine 15
Manually 30 sec; 30-35 pump strokes.
8) While lowering the undercarriage and
opening the landing flaps the aeroplane is turned towards the
airfield (in calm weather extending the flight path, in windy
weather staying near the field), landing is started at 200m
altitude and with little throttle by steering the aeroplane in
to correct glide path.
Glide path with lowered undercarriage and
landing flaps fully opened is, when engines are idling, very
steep (1:8). Therefore landings flaps are opened fully only if
fast loss of altitude is required.
Banking turns and glide path at speed Va =
210 - 220 km/h.
9) During the last part of airfield
approach the rudder trim tabs are set to half and and aileron
trim tabs at 0, because pressure on the controls is to counter
Only very shortly before touching down the
throttle is pulled to idle position. By doing this the strong
braking effect of the propellers is avoided.
10) If touching down appears to be
happening too early, landing glide can be extended with the help
of the engine.
Throttle is increased very slowly and only
as much as to ju st barely keep the aeroplane in the air.
In an emergency it is better to touch down
even at too high speed when the glide slope remains normal, than
to add excessively add thrust to only one engine and thus cause
a flip over one wing.
11) Landing on the fuselage (undercarriage
retracted) has to be always performed:
If for a reason or another (low cloud base)
it is impossible to reach minimum necessary altitude of 300m
prior to single engine landing.
If there is no suitable place for
performing a normal landing.
Landing on the fuselage is not as dangerous
to the crew as nosing over, which can happen in normal landing,
when conditions for landing are not satisfactory. Landing on the
fuselage is started as a normal landing.
These points must be noted:
a) C-gunner position has to be ejected
prior to landing if there is a risk of nosing over.
b) Undercarriage is not lowered, not even
c) Landing flaps are set to fully open
d) When aeroplane touches down, propellers
should preferably be standing still (feathered). Canopy ejection
mechanism is disengaged but canopy is not released.
e) Fly only very slightly above ground, and
then aeroplane is pulled slowly and evenly in such manner that
it touches the ground with it's auxiliary spur first (glider
landing is performed).
f) Everything is tightly tied on their
places. Head is turned to right, away from the Revi sight.
g) Machine gun operator is sitting on his
seat, ventral gondola is normally torn away in the landing.
h) Wireless operator has to note following
Armour plating has to be tightly locked in
place. ) If not jettisoned
Weapons must be tied with their belts.
) during the flight.
Wireless operator's seat must be in the
During the glide in to the landing wireless
operator detaches the microphone from his operator's head piece.
Radio contact will still remain open. If wireless operator
wishes to speak, all he has to do is to press the microphone
against his throat.
After this wireless operator grabs his seat
belt tightly in order to avoid injury in the case of nosing
Flaring off from single engine landing.
Flaring off from single engine landing
(i.e. aborting the landing in it final phase), when only one
engine is running, is i m p o s s i b 1 e , if the undercarriage
is lowered or the landing flaps are fully opened.
c. Forced landing when both engines have
The main fuel cock is closed. Ignition is
If possible propellers are set to position
"Feathered" ("Segelstellung"). Before landing Verey pistol
flares are jettisoned. C-gunner position is jettisoned.
Right before touching down the canopy
jettisoning system is opened.
d. Landing into water
Before hitting the water crew must:
1) Jettison the canopy.
2) Open parachute harnesses.
3) Retract undercarriage, stop the engines.
4) Open landing flaps to full angle and
5) When the wind is strong and waves large
perform a normal landing towards the wind.
6) When the wind is weak or in calm weather
when waves are large land in the direction of the waves on their
7) In rough seas and strong winds jumping
on a parachute must be considered better alternative than
landing on the water, because in rough seas aeroplane will sink
to the bottom immediately and thus getting out of it is
8) Landing on the water is performed tail
9) Immediately before the aeroplane touches
the water wireless operator operates the dinghy release lever
(at frame 8a).
1. Release step (15mm stroke) "Hatches
released" ("Klappen frei")
2. Release step (140mm stroke) "Dinghy
released" ("Boot frei")
Dinghy is then filled with carbon dioxide
and it emerges from it's locker. Dinghy is ready for use.
After the aeroplane has contacted the water:
Seatbelts are opened, crew exits the
aeroplane. Bottle valves of the life jackets are opened.
(Pressure air bottles must not be opened under no circumstances
before opening the seatbelts nor when in the aeroplane under no
circumstances, because that may present the danger of not
getting out of the plane.)
The dinghy is pulled near with the pull
chord outside the fuselage. The three piece oars are made
operational, and attached to the oarlocks. The dinghy is boarded
and following procedures performed:
1) Pull chord is detached. It is most
reasonable to pull it in to the dinghy.
2) The knot on the hand rope/rescue rope is
untied and dinghy pushed clear from the aeroplane.
3) When the hand rope is packed tightly,
another knot/hand rope is opened (on newer dinghies there is no
hand rope, but "weak point" for breaking.)
For emergency radio transmitter operation,
see: "Ju 88 aeroplane radio equipment - Shrt manual for wireless
operators and crew" (" Ju 88 Flugzeug-Bordfunkanlage -
Kurzbetriensanweisung fur Bordfunker und Besatsung").
e. Landing into water with parachute
1) In calm weather and light wind the
parachute harness is opened when slightly over the surface (ca.
l-2m), making sure not to be covered with the parachute and
getting trapped with in the ropes.
2) In strong wind close to shoreline or
rescue vessel the harness is not opened before the parachute has
dropped in to the water to maximise the sail effect.
3) Only after opening the parachute harness
the bottle valve of the life vest is opened.
4) If rescue aeroplane comes in to sight
while floating in the water, a dye bag is set in to the water by
opening it's mouth and removing it's rubber cover. Bag will
empty itself in 10 minutes and the splash of color will remain
ca. 1V2 hours.
8. Emergency equipment of the aeroplane
a. Tropical emergency gear.
b. Winter emergency equipment
Equipment has been placed in box-sleigh
with detachable skis, installed in the dinghy locker. When
taking the emergency equipment from the aeroplane the skis
stored inside the box have to be attached to the ski fastening
irons in the bottom of the box. A wooden dowels belonging the
attachment points has to be stricken in the hole reserved for
it. For preventing accidental detachment of the dowels and
resulting detachment of the skis, each dowel is equipped with a
locking loop which is put in to longitudal groove reserved for
it after striking in the dowels, and screwed in to the ski.
9. Jumping with the parachute.
Parachute jump is only performed on the
order of the pilot of the aeroplane. There are two alternative
1) Through the ventral hatch,
2) Through the ejected canopy.
If possible jump is done through the
ventral hatch, because when exiting from the ejected canopy it
possible that the jumper be injured by the tail assembly.
To point 1. Jettisoning the C-gunner
position. Trailing antenna in pulled in or cut.
First the latch on the attachment rope is
detached from the static ventral gondola. Safety on the red
lever on the bottom of the gondola is removed and lever is
turned. Lower part of C-gunner position falls off.
To point 2. Jettisoning of the canopy.
First the armor plates are removed.
All crew members must be fastened with seat
Safety on a hand lever high behind the
frame 6 is removed by the wireless operator or the observer, and
he also pushes around with open grip, without holding the lever
in hand. The rear part of the canopy is detached and the air
stream wrenches it clear from the aeroplane.
10. Wilful destruction of the aeroplane.
If the aeroplane has to be landed in enemy
territory, without any chance of rescue, the aeroplane has to be
destroyed. See part 9A "General equipment, booklet 5, "Self
Note: this was probably scanned using OCR software. There were a
few errors I corrected but could easily have missed some.
Additional Images not from original